Flashcards in Islam Deck (67):
The Jewish star is Muslim in origin
False. Rather, it was a polytheistic icon adapted during the spread of Islam. Its use today is somewhat controversial in the Muslim world.
What is a Muslim?
One who "commits himself to Islam"
When did Islam begin?
in the Arabian dessert in 7th century BC
Where is the birthplace of Islam?
What is now current day Saudi Arabia and is less than 1,000 miles from Jerusalem
Pre-Islamic religion is characterized by _____.
What is the center of Spirituality?
What is the Black Stone?
meteoric stone in located in Mecca, said to have fallen from heaven during the time of Adam and Eve
During the time of Muhhamid, what happened to the Black Stone?
Pilgrims built an enclosure around it called the Ka'Ba.
(Legend says that Abraham and Ishmael built the Ka'ba)
Traditionally, the black stone was worshiped by:
The animistic population
When did Abraham cast Hegar and Ishmael out?
When Ishmael was around 14
How many sons did Ishmael have?
12 sons. Muhommad is said to be a descendent of Ishmael.
When was Mohammad born?
570 BC in Arabia
What happened to Mohammad at age 25?
He met a wealthy widow named Kadijah (40)
When and by whom was Mohammad visited?
Visited by the archangel Gabriel, at 610 CE
What tribe was Mohammad part of?
What clan was Mohammad a part of?
What happened at 619 CE?
Mohammad's uncle Abu-Talib and wife Kadijah die
Mohammad begins hijra to Medina in what year?
The Battle of Badr
March on Mecca ends peacefully
Mohammad dies after brief illness
*Buried in Medina
What is the most important aspect of Islam?
It is that Allah is the one sovereign God. There is no God but Allah, and Mohammad is his prophet.
What is the word of God in Islam?
What are the five pillars of Islam?
1. Shahadah (profession of faith)
2. Salaht (ritual prayer)
3. Zakaht (alms tax)
4. Sawm (fasting during Ramadan)
5. Hajj (pilmigridge to Mecca)
What is the declaration of faith in Islam?
"There is no God but God, Mohammad is his messenger"
(True/False) Many people say that the Qu'ran cannot be translated.
The Qu'ran has ____ suras
What does Qu'ran mean?
The Arabic word Qur'an is derived from the root qara’a which has various meanings such as “to read,” “to recite,” “to proclaim” etc. Qur’an is a verbal noun and hence the means “reading” or “recitation.”
In the broad sense, what does the Qu'ran mean?
It is meant to refer to the revelation from Allah through the prophet Mohammad
All but one chapter of the Qu'ran begins with what phrase?
Bismillah al rahman al rahim, -“In the name of God, most Gracious, most Compassionate”
What other books do Muslims recognize as sacred, besides the Qu'ran?
Torah and Psalms of the Hebrew Bible and the Gospels of the New Testament
the custom or tradition of Muhammad. It’s supplemental to the Qur’an as a source for the Shari’a.
What is the other major source of Islamic teaching?
What is the Hadith?
consists of the sayings of Muhammad and his Companions passed down and collected in the centuries immediately following his death.
Islam emphasized two primary components of religion. What were they?
1. The call of God
2. The response of the human community
*All human beings belong to God and are expected to respond in obedience to his will for them.
What is the chief sin of humankind, in the eyes of a Muslim?
What determined whether or not you went to heaven or hell in Islam?
Obedience or submission or commitment to Allah’s will determined who would go to paradise and who would not.
How are people judged in Islam?
All people are judged on the basis of the record of deeds in a book kept for the purpose of judging.
What happens to someone when they die?
when a person dies, the body returns to earth and the soul goes into a state of sleep until resurrection day. On this day, the angel of Allah will sound his trumpet, the earth will split, and the bodies will rejoin their souls. The resurrected are then judged by Allah. Those who have been faithful and virtuous will be rewarded; those who have been evil will be punished.
Why did Islam spread so well during the 7th century?
Because it came about at the perfect time. The time period really lended itself to the spread of Islam. The Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire was on the verge of collapse. The Arab people could fortify themselves among Islam.
Where was the first place that Islam spread?
It spread rapidly through the near east and then across North Africa and into Spain.
Where is Islam spreading rapidly today?
in Europe and North America
The successors to Mohammad as leaders of the Islamic community were called:
Under the early caliphs, ____ and ____, the Islamic movement became an empire extending from Spain to India
Umar and Ali
How were caliphates first chosen?
They were friends of the prophet and they were chosen by election or common consent.
How were caliphates chosen in later years?
It became hereditary, and the office was more like that of a King.
What are the first four caliphs called?
The orthodox or rightly guided caliphs
Who were the first four, Orthadox, caliphs?
What caused the major division in Islam?
derived from disagreements over the succession in leadership after the death of the prophet, between those that felt like Ali, as the husband of Mohammad's only surviving daughter, should follow Mohammad, and those that did not.
Ali was passed over 3 times for caliph, and even when we was chosen, a schism developed that lasted over ____ years.
Muslims who believe in the legitimacy of the first three caliphs are Sunnis, meaning that they follow the Sunna: the Quran plus the behavior, observances, sayings, and values of Muhammad and, according to some sources, also of his Companions and the first four orthodox or “rightly guided” caliphs, abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali.
Shia Muslims (Partisans of Ali) insist on the importance of descent from Muhammad’s family and feel that the role of the prophet’s successor ought to have gone to Ali.
When did Ali officially become caliph?
*He was murdered in 661
Who took over the caliph after the murder of Ali?
the Umayyad Dynasty
Who challenged the Umayyad Dynasty?
Ali's youngest son, Hussein, challenged the Umayyad Dynasty.
What was the battle called, where Hussein challenged the Umayyad Dynasty?
Battle of Karbala
woolen, describes course woolen garments
The Aesthetic movement of Islam
The mysticism of love, ecstasy, and intuition
What group of Muslims emphasize discipline, poverty, and abstinence form worldly pleasures
*possibility of knowledge of God through mystical experience
What does aesthetic mean?
It means that you remove yourself from worldly pleasures
13th century Persian Sufi Thinker
How many Muslims are there worldwide?
How big is Islam?
1.6 million followers. it is the second biggest religion after Christianity.
What is the most common name worldwide?