Chromosome Ch6-7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chromosome Ch6-7 Deck (39):
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Purpose of mitosis

Cell dividing into two identical cells.

1

What kind of cells are produced at the end of mitosis?

Daughter cells

2

How many times does the cell divide during mitosis?

Once

3

What are sister chromatids?

Two chromosomes

4

What happens during prophase?

DNA is copied, chromosomes become visible, and nucleus begins to dissolve.

5

What happens during metaphase?

Chromosomes are attached to spindle fibers.

6

What happens during anaphase?

Chromosomes move away from each other.

7

What happens during telophase?

Chromosomes are at the opposite ends of each other and new nucleus is formed.

8

Is cytokinesis part of mitosis?

No.

9

What happens during cytokinesis?

Cytoplasm divides.

10

What is the purpose of meiosis?

Cell division with daughter cells having half the chromosomes as parent cells creating haploid cells.

11

How many times does the cell divide during meiosis?

Twice

12

What kind of cells are produced at the end of meiosis?

Gamete

13

Somatic cell

Normal body cell, contains 46 chromosomes, is considered diploid

14

Gamete cell

Sex cell, egg or sperm, 23 chromosomes, haploid or N

15

23+23=46

Haploid +haploid = diploid
N+N=2N
Egg+sperm=zygote
Gamete+gamete=somatic

16

Haploid cells

Have half the normal number of chromosomes.

17

Meiosis

Form of cell division that halves the number or chromosomes, occurs in sex cells (egg and sperm), same steps as mitosis just goes through them twice

18

Crossing over

Occurs in prophase 1, results in new genetic combinations

19

Features of meiosis

Crossing over, independent assortment, random which 23 pairs of the chromosomes goes to the cell, genetic combinations that result are nearly unlimited

20

What phase do spindle fibers and centrioles disappear?

Telophase

21

DNA that is spread out in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell is called

Chromatin

22

What phase in the cell cycle do the cells spend most of their time doing their job in?

Interphase

23

What structures do spindle fibers grow from?

Centrioles

24

Chromosomes that are the same and carry genes for the same trait are called

Homologous chromosomes

25

True/false: chromatids of a chromosome are identical

True

26

What phase does the spindle fibers and centrioles appear?

Prophase

27

What is the dividing wall in telophase called?

Cell plate

28

Chromatids are ____ of chromosomes

x2

29

What stage of meiosis does crossing over occur?

Prophase I

30

Mitosis/both/meiosis: cell divides only once, produces diploid cells, produces two cells, homologous chromosomes do not line up next to each other, occurs in somatic cells

Mitosis

31

Mitosis/both/meiosis: involves cellular division, DNA copied once, occurs in plant and animal cells

Both

32

Mitosis/both/meiosis: produces haploid cell, occurs in germ cells, produces 4 cells, homologous chrom. line up paired with each other, new cells are different from each other

Meiosis

33

Binary fission

Reproduction of a cell by division into two equal parts

34

Autosomes

A chromosomes that is not a sex chromosome

35

Sex chromosome

Involved with determining sex of an organism

36

XY vs XX

XY= male. XX= female

37

Who determines the sex if the child?

The male

38

Karyotype

The number and visual appearance if chromosomes in the cell nuclei of a species, determines if the individual has an abnormal amount of chromosomes