Chronic kidney disease Flashcards Preview

Urogenital system > Chronic kidney disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chronic kidney disease Deck (13):
1

Chronic kidney disease

Decreased kidney function persisting for 3 > months or sustained fall in GFR to <60ml /min per 1.73m2

2

Pathophys of CKD

1. Compensate for injury by increasing filteration through remaining nephrons
2. Hypertrophy and vasodilation of remaining nephrons
3. Increased glomerular pressure causes scarring of the glomerulus and progressive damage
CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE CAN PROGRESS TO END STAGE RENAL DISEASE WHERE TRANSPLANT OR DIALYSIS IS NEEDED

3

Causes of CKD

1. Diabetes mellitus
2. Hypertension - causes chronic glomerular nephritis

4

Stage 1 CKD

normal or high GFR (GFR > 90 mL/min)

5

Stage 2 CKD

Mild CKD (GFR = 60-89 mL/min)
Stage 3A Moderate CKD (GFR = 45-59 mL/min)
Stage 3B Moderate CKD (GFR = 30-44 mL/min)
Stage 4 Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 mL/min)
Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)

6

Stage 3A CKD

Stage 3A Moderate CKD (GFR = 45-59 mL/min)

7

STAGE 3B CKD

Stage 3B Moderate CKD (GFR = 30-44 mL/min)

8

STAGE 4 CKD

Stage 4 Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 mL/min)

9

STAGE 5 CKD


Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)

10

Invest for CKD

• Ultrasound of Kidney to show scarring
• Serum creatinine is raised

11

Hypertension as a cause of CKD

1. Glomerulus to thicken to withstand high pressure
2. Lumen narrows as a resut
3. Reduced bloodflow -> reduced GFR
4. Activates RAAS system
5. Blood pressure increased further
6. Glomerularsclerosis - scarring

12

Diabetes as a cause of CKD

1. Excess glucose sticks to proteins in efferent arterioless
2. Arterioles stiffen and become narrower
3. Increases pressure within glomerulus
4. Hyperfiltration -> glomerularslcrosis

13

Clinical manifestations of CKD

1. Azotemia - build up of urea and toxins
2. Encephalopathy - asterexis ( tremor of hands)
3. Pericarditis - pericardial rub
4. Hyperkalemia - cardiac arrythmia
5. No erythropoetin - anaemia
6. Unable to activate vit D - hypocalcemia (renal osteodystrophy)