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Flashcards in genital cancers Deck (11):
1

Types of ovarian cancer

• Epithelial type
• Endometrial type
• Germ cell type
• Stromal

2

Epithelial ovarian cancer

- Most common type
• Found in older women / postmenopausal - nulliparous is a risk factor ( repeated ovulation)

presentation
• Abdominal swelling ( due to tumor )
• Pressure of tumor ( early satiety and incontinence )
• Discomfort

3

Subtype of Epithelial cancer

Serous/ TUBAL cancer - looks like fallopian tube
- assoc w BRACA mutation
- spreads beyond ovary in time of identification

4

Endometrial/ Clear cell tumor

- looks like endometrium
- associated with nulliparity

5

Germ cell cancer

- affects younger women under 30
- abdominal pain and swelling
*Benign*
• Cystic teratoma - contains different cell types
*malignant*
• Dysgerminoma - common malignant germ cell tumour

6

Stromal ovarian cancer

- rare
- occur throughout life
- may secrete hormones such as testosterone / oestrogen

7

Investigations

• Ca125 test
• Ultrasound and CT of Pelvis

8

Ca125 test

• A protein found in blood as a non specific marker of peritoneal irritation
• Elevated by menstuation, pregnancy, malignancies
• Very high levels assoc w peritoneal malignancies

9

BRACA Mutation

• BRACA 1 and BRACA 2 are tumor supressor genes which become mutated
• Autosomal dominant inheritance

10

Vulval cancer

- Squamous cell carcinoma caused by
• Lichen sclerosis - automimmune condition causing flattening and whitening of vulvula
• HPV 16 - enters the vulva and causes cancer

11

Vaginal cancer

• squamous cell carcinoma
• Caused by HPV assoc