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Flashcards in Chronicity Deck (13):
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Describe the characteristics of chronic illness

The person with a chronic illness experiences impaired functioning in more than one dimension

Dependency on medications and medical technology
Unpredictability and uncertainty
When you going to have your next exacerbation
Medication treatment, complication and adverse effects,
Ongoing disease symptoms and treatment can interfere with many normal activities

Individuals experience multiple losses

The medical regime is limited in its effectiveness
treatment contribute substantially to the disruption of usual patterns of living

1

What are causes of developmental disabilities

Congenital/chromosomal
-Down syndrome
Mental retardation
-Suffercation
Learning disabilities
-Autism
-ADD
Perinatal complication
-Cerebral palsy

2

Identify emotional responses to a diagnosis of a chronic condition

Fear
Adaptive – do something about it
Maladaptive – withdrawn, isolation
Grief
-Losing, activities no longer able to do
Anxiety

Guilt
-Fulfilling the parental role, partner role.
-Genetic guilt

3

Explore issues related to coping with chronicity such as fatigue, stigma, powerlessness, experiences with HCP

Fatigue
-common, interferes with ability to function, nonpharmacological therapy is exercising

Stigma - putting labels, dont want to help them
-yolk of undesirability
-EG. HIV, AIDS

Mood disorders
-can develop anxiety and depression

Powerlessness - loss of control

Experience with HCP
-Pain, HC professionals sometimes require visual confirmation of the pain prior to offering medications



4

Discuss sources of uncertainty and how to resolve uncertainty

-uncertainty in illness is present throughout the event of diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis
-occurs between change and transition

UNCERTAINTY IN ADULTS IN ACUTE
Severity of illness increases uncertainty
Seriousness of illness, life threatening
Diagnosis and lack of information
Waiting for diagnosis, time during diagnoses
Personality factors
Depression, sense of control
Social support
Poor social support = limited support from immediate family as they have a level of uncertainty
Health care providers
Not providing enough info, communication methods, medical jargon, confidence
Demographic variables

UNCERTAINTY IN CHRONIC ILLNESS
Treatments, life style changes, prognosis, exacerbation
Differences from uncertainty with acute
Short term uncertainty
Chronic uncertainty may precipitate considering other possibilities and alternatives to adapt to a new normal
May be viewed as an opportunity rather than danger

UNCERTAINTY IN CHILDREN
Diagnosis
What aspects of the diagnosis
-Seriousness, lack of or multiple diagnosis
Symptoms of the illness
What specifically about the symptoms
-Knowing which are serious and which needs to be acted on
Health Care Providers
-In what way
-level of expertise


WAYS PEOPLE RESOLVE UNCERTAINTY
-acknowledgement the circumstances
-seek info
-engage in transition

5

APAPTIVE TASKS OF PARENTS WITH CHILDREN HAVING CHRONIC ILLNESSES

Accept the child’s condition
Manage the illness on a day-to-day basis
Meet the child’s normal developmental needs
Meet the developmental needs of other family members
Cope with ongoing stress and periodic crises
Educate others about the illness
Establish a support system

6

Explore the concept of body image in relation to chronic illness or disability

-is the picture of one's own body that is formed in one's mind
-include perceptions of shape, size and function
-may include inanimate object such as a wheel chairf
-affected by the life cycle
Psychological shock
-Young person with colostomy
Withdrawal
-Withdrawing from friends or family
Acknowledgement
-Accepting change to their change
Integration


7

Consider impact of chronic illness/disability on sexuality

-Consider impact of fatigue, pain, disability, effects of medications, altered body image, decreased self esteem.
-Fearful of intimate relationships
-Need time to grieve the losses and gradually adjust

8

List coping tasks and strategies for chronically ill individuals and families with children

behavior that indicates that willingness to confront the realities of illness, awareness of personal reactions, and attempt to deal with them.
-accept the child's condition
-manage the illness on a day to day
-meet the child's normal developmental needs
-meet the needs of other family members
-cope with ongoing stress
educate others
establish a support system

9

APPROACH COPING STRATEGIES

-seeking information
-enhancing spiritual life
-self distraction
-expressing feeling
-seeking social support

10

Chronic adjustment/adaptation phase

-redefining normal
-adjusting to social stigma and altered relationships
-continue to maintain a positive relationship HCP
-successfully grieve the loss of disability or chronic condition

11

Explain the meaning of health within illness

Even though one is ill, has a disease, disability or disorder one can still have a perspective of good health, wellbeing, happiness.

12

List power resources

Physical strength
psychological stamina and social support
positive self-concept
energy
knowledge
motivation
belief system