Flashcards in Neonate Transition Deck (11):
Normal respiration in NeoNates
30 to 60 breaths/min
What is the initiation of breathing
Pulmonary ventilation must be established through lung expansion following birth
A marked increase in the pulmonary circulation must occur
The first breath of life -- the gasp in response to mechanical and reabsorptive, chemical, thermal, and sensory changes associated with birth
3 Factors opposing the first breath
-Alveolar surface tension, the presence of surfactants
-the viscosity of lung fluid within the respiratory tract
Explain the APGAR scoring
Assessment done within one min and five minute after birth to evaluate the physical condition of the newborn. If the score is less than 7 after 5 min then it is repeated up to 20 min.
How does newborn lose body heat
Convection -loss of heat from the warm body surface to the cooler air currents
Radiation - losses occur when heat transfers from the heated body surface to cooler surfaces and objects not in direct contact with the body. (walls of room or incubator)
Evaporation - loss of heat incurred when water is converted to vapor.
Conduction - loss of heat to a cooler surface by direct skin contact. (chilled hands, stethescope, cold scales)
After drying the newborn, major heat loss are from radiation and convection because of the newborn's large body surface area compared to its weight.
How does a newborn produce heat?
-Basal metabolic rate, muscular activity and chemical thermogenesis (NST)
NST is the mechanism in which the body metabolizes the store of brown adipose tissue to provide heat to the peripheral circulation
appears about 26 to 30 weeks
Explain iron storage and RBC production
-iron is stored for the first 5 month
-newborn irons stores are determined by total body hemoglobin content and length of gestation
-After 6 month, food containing iron must be taken to prevent anemia
What are the transition of stools for a neonate
-meconium, which is thick, tarry black or green are passed within 8 to 24hours after birth.
The transitional which is (thin brown to green) stools are passed for 48 to 72 hours.
Breast fed stools - pale yellow, liquid and can be once every 5 to 7 days
Describe the characteristics of newborn urinary function
93% voids within the first 24 hour
occasionally pink stains (brick dust spots) may appear, caused by urates.
Blood on female diapers are called pseudomentruation. Related to withdrawal of maternal hormones
Basic reflexes of neonates