Flashcards in Chylamidia Deck (36):
What is a feature of all Chylamidia?
They are all obligate intracellular organisms as they are unable to synthesize essential compounds.
How can one grow Chylamidia in the lab?
Using yolk sacs but this is not routinely done.
How does one normally diagnose a Chlylamidial infection?
Using flourescein-labelled antibodies that will bind to Chylamidial antigens.
Can also use:
Name three Chylamidial species.
What is the most common STI?
Genital infection with C. trachomatis
Which clinical presentations are serovars D-K of C. trachomatis responsible for?
Outline how C. trachomatis (serovars D-K) may cause disease of the female genital tract.
Asymptomatic infection of the cervix > ascending pelvic infection > inflammation + blockage of the Fallopian tubes > infertility or ectopic pregnancy
What genital tract infections are serovars D-K (C. trachomatis) responsible for?
Females: cervicitis and urethritis
What is male urethritis due to C. trachomatis (serovars D-K) normally associated with?
Thin watery discharge.
What complications can a male experience when he has urethritis due to C. trachomatis (serovars D-K)?
Complications include epididymitis and proctitis.
What is proctitis?
Inflammation of the anus and the lining of the rectum.
Which organisms are very common causes of urethritis in SA?
N. Gonorrhoeae and Chylamidia.
Which serovars of C. trachomatis are responsible for inclusion conjunctivitis?
What two forms does inclusion conjunctivitis due to C. trachomatis (serovars D-K) take?
1) Acute purulent discharge:
- occurs in infants, acquired from birth canal (50% chance)
2) Non-purulent conjunctivitis:
- is a more protracted form of conjunctivitis
- occurs in adults, associated with genital infection
Which serovars of C. trachomatis cause pneumonia?
Who are at risk of pneumonia due to C. trachomatis?
Infants < 6 months old
Unusual cause in immunocompromised adult
What is lymphogranuloma venereum?
A sexually transmitted condition which presents with genital ulceration.
Which serovars of C. trachomatis cause lymphogranuloma venereum?
Incubation period of lymphogranuloma venereum?
What does a lymphogranuloma venereum lesion look like?
The primary lesion occurs on the genitals and consists of a small ulcerating papule that is often unnoticed.
What is a papule?
A circumscribed, solid elevation of skin with no visible fluid.
Natural history of lymphogranuloma venereum?
Incubation period > 2-3 weeks later suppuration period > suppuration of regional/inguinal lymph nodes > chronic granulomatous infection of regional lymphatics and adjoining tissues of the pelvis and genital tract
What can chronic granulomatous infection of the tissues of the pelvic area and genital tract lead to?
What is elephantiasis?
Skin thickening of the genital area due to chronic edema due to lymphatic obstruction.
Which serovars of C. trachomatis lead to trachoma?
What is trachoma?
It is a severe form of conjunctivitis.
How can trachoma be hugely detrimental?
This form of conjunctivitis leads to scarring and deformation of the eyelids. Secondary infection leads to further damage and eventual blindness.
Natural reservoir of C. psittaci?
Is a parasite of the parrot family (psittacine birds).
The birds are:
- life-long carriers
The birds can become highly infectious when stressed.
What disease does C. psittaci cause?
How is C. psittaci transmitted?
Inhalation of dried fasces or infected dust.
What conditions can C. psittaci cause?
Infective endocarditis (rare complication)
What does C. pneumoniae cause?
Community acquired pneumonia.
How is C. pneumoniae spread?
Person to person.
*no known animal reservoirs
Which antibiotic class is used to treat Chylamidial infections?
Which antibiotic is used to treat Chylmidial infections?