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Flashcards in Pneumocystis Deck (18):
0

What is the causative organism of pneumocystis?

Pneumocystis jirovecii

1

What forms pneumocystis jirovecii found in?

Trophozoite and cyst forms.

2

What is a trophozoite?

A protozoan of a vegetative form as distinguished from one of a reproductive or resting form.

3

What class of organism is pneumocystis jirovecii thought to be closely related to?

Fungi.

4

How is P.jirovecii spread?

Airborne. Spores thought to play a role.

5

What does P.jirovecii cause?

Pneumonia. LRTI.

6

Who gets pneumonia caused by P.jirovecii?

Immunocompromised:
- HIV/AIDS
- malnourished children
- chemotherapy patients
- patients on steroids or immunosuppressives

7

Outline the pathogenesis of P.jirovecii.

Organism attaches to type 1 alveolar cells > if immunocompromised > alveoli filled with foamy exudate

8

What features are severe cases of pneumocystis pneumonia associated with?

Hyaline membranes
Interstitial fibrosis
Edema

9

What is another name for type1 pneumocytes?

Squamous alveolar cells.

10

What are the clinical features of pneumocystis pneumonia?

Fever.
SOB.
Non-productive cough
Tachycardia
Tachypnoea

11

What can one expect from the blood gas analysis of a patient with pneumocystis pneumonia?

Hypoxia.

12

What might one expect to see on a cxr of a pneumocystis pneumonia patient?

Ground grass appearance

13

What methods are used to diagnose pneumocystis pneumonia?

Microscopy:
- immunoflourescence using labelled monoclonal antibodies
PCR:
- possible false-positives due to detectin of colonizing organisms

14

Treatment for pneumocystis pneumonia?

Co-trimoxazole in high doses.

15

HIV patients with a low CD4 count receive what kind of prophylaxis?

Daily Co-trimoxazole
*prevents pneumocystis pneumonia and toxoplasmosis

16

Can P.jirovecii affect other organs?

Only very rarely.

17

What can be given to patients in the first few days of treatment to increase oxygen delivery to tissues?

Steroids.