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1

described the weakness of Political Parties in the Philippines and the replacement of Political Dynasties of their responsibilities due to Political Turncoatism.

Tuazon (2013)

2

enumerated several problems that Philippine Elections continue to face problems and solutions must be adopted as follows:
1. Efforts to curb powers to local political clans and dynasties as they were described as the “building bloc” of the politics. This set-up was the root to immutable and unequal socioeconomic structure in the country. Local Political Clans are becoming the vehicle of the clientelistic exchanges by national-level politicians
2. Political Parties are weak and must be reformed. In this perspective, party switching
(Political Turncoatism) is a constant element of the Philippine Politics
3. Electoral Reforms must also be adopted.

Teehanke (2018)

3

accepts the fact that the President is no doubt a dominant policy which influences legislative agenda. Political and institutional resources, which is under Presidential control, are important factor in shaping the Legislative Agenda (Pork Barrel Politics)

Panao (2014)

4

describes the president who always seeks to control the Bureaucracy to ensure that its activities are aligned to his/her agenda. This results to tensions between political control and bureaucratic agenda in a expected sound democratic set-up. The Bureaucracy works on the “presidential prerogative” which devalues merit-protected career service.

Monsod (2017)

5

demonstrates the prevailing disputes over ethnic and indigenous identities which consequently resulted to difficulties in enforcing proportional representation, ethnicity-based bureaucratic representation. This tends to a majoritybased rule of multi-ethnic context such in the Philippines.

Gera (2015)

6

described defects in the Supreme Court as Justices do not seems to defect loyalties of the President who appointed them. Thus making the Supreme Court politicized.

Escresa (2013)

7

described the high expectation of Filipins towards their government and pressures the Political Elite to adhere several ideas such as rule of law, organization of program based program, massbased political parties, allow ideological persuasions. In this context, it was described that Political Parties are weak because the elites allow them to be.

Caoili (2012)

8

described the Tripartite Government a one who has a Pangulo Regime concept. The Pangulo Regime is “a democratic and libertarian form of governance… that operates on the principle of the supremacy of the executive and it puts premium on the value of pagdamay (sharing with and caring for fellow persons)”.

Agpalo (1999)

9

Elites can be further classified depending on the strength they have: 1. Political 2. Economic 3. Social

ELITE THEORY (Thomas Dye)

10

From its Spanish native origin, it describes a set-up where the “chiefs” and their respective interests (political and economic) will play pivotal roles in the historical framework of a country such the Philippine


CACIQUE DEMOCRACY (Benedict Anderson, 1989)

11

Due to weak pressure from constituencies, the local leaders resulted to hold on “guns, goons, and gold” instead of subscribing to clientelistic set-up.

WARLORDISM (Sidel, 1989)

12

A “Vertical” dyadic relationship of reciprocity between individuals of unequal status, wealth, and power, were said to crosscuts and undermine potential cleavages and antagonism between rich and the poor by uniting both into supraclass, particularistic alliances based on mutual aid


PATRON-CLIENT DEMOCRACY (Sidel, 1989)