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- It is the interaction of people in any unit or State for power to make, preserve, and amend the general rules under which they live.

POLITICS

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as any activity involving human beings associated together in relationship of power and authority

Robert Dahl defines Politics

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as, “one who gets what, when, and how”

Harold Laswell defined Politics

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as authoritative allocation of values in a society

David Easton (1959) defined politics

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as “a way of ruling in divided societies without violence”

Crick (1982) defined politics

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It deals with the study of systems of government and the analysis of political activity, political behavior, and political theories and practices
A discipline focused the institutionalizing possible conflicts brought by Politics

Political Science

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Pol sci emerged through?

University of the Philippines

8

APPROACHES IN STUDYING POLITICAL SCIENCE

Normative
Emipirical
Traditional/Legalist Institutionalism
Behavioralism
Post-Behavioralism

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studying issues involving judgments and ethics

Normative Focus –

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studying politics using observable and factual investigations

Empirical Focus –

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understanding politics by examining laws, governmental offices, constitutions, and other official institutions

Traditionalist/Legal Institutionalism –

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understand politics not just in state institutions but also individuals behaviors in a State

Behavioralism –

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understanding politics in further scoping down to citizens not just in individuals acting as State actors

Post-Behavioralism –

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The basic unit of measurement of Politics and Political Science. In politics, it refers to the ability to exercise control or impose restrictions over individuals, as well as compel other people to do certain tasks

Power

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It is a subfield of political science that deals with the political
economic interaction between nation-states as well as intergovernmental and transnational organizations.

International Relations -

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It is a subfield of political science that deals with the service that maintains a civil society & provides for the needs of the public

Public Administration –

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It is an interdisciplinary subfield of political science that draws upon economics, political science, law, history, sociology and other disciplines in explaining the crucial role of political factors in determining economic outcomes.

Political Economy –

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It is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice and the enforcement of a legal code by authority.

Political Philosophy –

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It is a field in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. In other words, comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries.

Comparative Politics –

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A community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, independent of external control and possessing an organized government to which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.

STATE

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Elements of a State:

People
Government
Territory
Sovereignty

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MANIFESTATIONS OF SOVEREIGNTY: The supremacy of a person or body of persons in the state over individuals or associations of individuals within the area of its jurisdiction.

Internal –

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MANIFESTATIONS OF SOVEREIGNTY: The absolute independence of a state from outside influences or foreign intervention.

External –

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Group of people bound together by certain characteristics such as common social origin, language, customs, and traditions, and who believe that they are one and distinct from the others (Hector de Leon)

NATION

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emergence of a “borderless world.” (Ohmae, 1990) or an “increasing interdependence of markets and production in different countries through trade in goods and services, cross-border flows of capital, and exchanges of technology” (Nunnenkamp et al., 1994)

GLOBALIZATION –

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The persons and institutions that make and enforce rules or laws for the larger community (Thomas Magstadt)

GOVERNMENT -

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what is the purpose of the government?

the advancement of public welfare

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fusion of powers between the executive and legislative where the former is responsible to the legislature and the head of state acts in a ceremonial function

Parliamentary –

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separation of powers between the executive and the legislative branches of the government, with the executive acting as the head of state and of the government and constitutionally independent of the legislature as regards to his tenure, policies and acts

Presidential –

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Ideal Democracy (Robert Dahl)

Effective Participation
voting equality at the decisive stage
enlightened understanding
Control of the Agenda