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Flashcards in Civil Procedure Deck (81):
1

Topics? (4)

(Personal Jurisdiction)

  1. Types of Personal Jurisdiction
  2. Traditional Tests
  3. Modern Test = Constitutional Limitations on Personal Jurisdiction
  4. Personal jurisdiction & the Internet

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Structure?

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(Personal Jurisdiction: Types of Personal Jurisdiction)

  1. In Personam
  2. In Rem
  3. Quasi-In-Rem
    1. International Shoe Test Required 

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(Personal Jurisdiction: Traditional Tests)

  1. Physical Presence at Time of Personal Service
    1. Transient Presence
  2. Domicile
  3. Express Consent, OR
  4. Long Arm Statutes (aka Implied Consent)

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(Personal Jurisdiction: Modern Test = Constitutional Limitations on Personal Jurisdiction)

  1. Statutory Authority (Long Arm Statutes)
  2. Minimum Contacts
    1. Test - "Defendant must have certain minimum contacts with the forum state such that maintenance of the suit does not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice."
    2. Minimum Contacts
      1. Purposeful Availment
      2. Foreseeability
    3. Fair Play & Substantial justice
      1. Relatedness of Contact & Claim
        1. Related = Specific Personal Jurisdiction
        2. Unrelated = General Personal Jurisdiction
          1. Systematic & Continuous Contacts Required
            1. Domicile 
            2. Incorporation, OR 
            3. Principal Place of Business
      2. Reasonableness of Jurisdiction 
        1. Burden on Defendant
        2. Plaintiff's Interest in Obtaining Relief
        3. Interest of the Forum State
  3. Notice = Reasonable Method & Opportunity to Appear & Be Heard

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(Personal Jurisdiction: Personal Jurisdiction & the Internet)

  1. Active = General Jurisdiction
  2. Interactive = Purposeful Availment
    1. Interactive
  3. Passive = Not Sufficient Contacts

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction)

  1. Federal Courts = Article Ill Limitations
    1. Federal Question Jurisdiction
    2. Diversity of Citizeship Jurisdiction
    3. Supplemental Jurisdiction
    4. Removal
    5. The Erie Doctrine
  2. CA Subject Matter Jurisdiction
    1. Superior Court
    2. Classification
    3. Aggregation
    4. Reclassification
    5. Multiple Claims

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Structure?

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Federal Question Jurisdiction)

  1. Well-Pleaded Complaint Rule
  2. Not Sufficient
    1. Anticipatory Defense
    2. Artful Pleadings

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Diversity of Citizenship Jurisdiction)

  1. Diversity
  2. Amount in Controversy (AIC) > $75,000
  3. Exclusions

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Diversity of Citizenship Jurisdiction: Diversity)

  1. Complete Diversity
  2. Diversity Determined = At Commencement of the Action
  3. Domicile
    1. Individuals
      1. Presence
      2. Intent to Remain = Subjective Intent
    2. Corporations
      1. State of Incorporation
      2. Principal Place of Business = Nerve Center
    3. Unincorporated Associations
      1. Limited Liability Companies
    4. Decedents, Minors & Incompetents
    5. Class Actions = Citizenship of Named Members of the Class 
    6. Non-Resident US  Citizens = Neither a Citizen of Any State Nor an Alien 
    7. Permanent Resident Alien = Citizen of State Where Domiciled
  4. Alien Diversity
    1. Between Citizen of State & Alien = Yes 
    2. Between Two Aliens = No 

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Diversity of Citizenship Jurisdiction: Amount in Controversy > $75,000)

  1. Good Faith Requirement
    1. Court Costs & Interest Not Included
  2. Dismissed if Legal Certainty < $75,000
  3. Aggregation
    1. Single Defendant = Yes
    2. Multiple Defendants = No
      1. Exception: Jointly & Severally Liable
  4. Equitable Relief
    1. Plaintiff's Viewpoint = Harm to Plaintiff, OR
    2. Defendant's Viewpoint = Cost of Compliance

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Diversity of Citizenship Jurisdiction: Exclusions)

  1. Divorce 
  2. Alimony 
  3. Child Custody, OR 
  4. Probate of Estate 

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Supplemental Jurisdiction)

  1. Effect
  2. Test = "Common Nucleus of Operative Fact"
    1. Same Transaction or Occurrence = YES
  3. Types of Supplemental Jurisdiction
    1. Pendant Jurisdiction
      1. One Limitation = Complete Diversity in Diversity Cases
        1. Complete Diversity in Diversity Cases = No
        2. Amount in Controversy in Diversity Cases = Yes
        3. Complete Diversity in Federal Question Cases = Yes
        4. Amount in Controversy in Federal Question Cases = Yes
    2. Ancillary Jurisdiction
      1. No Limitations
  4. Court Discretion
    1. Complex Claim of State Law
    2. State Law Claim Predominates
    3. Original Claim Dismissed, OR
    4. Other Compelling Reasons or Exceptional Circumstances

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Removal)

  1. General Test
    1. Federal Question, OR
    2. Diversity
  2. Who = Defendant Only
    1. Multiple Defendants = Unanimous Consent
    2. Waiver of Removal Right
      1. Permissive Counterclaims = Yes
      2. Compulsory Counterclaims = No
  3. Where = Vertical Removal Only
    1. Diversity Exception: Defendant Citizen of Forum = No Removal
  4. When = 30 Days After Notice Case Removable
    1. Notice = Service of Document
    2. Diversity Exception: One Year Limitation
  5. How = Procedure for Removal
    1. Notice of Removal Stating Grounds
    2. Signed Under Rule 11
    3. Attached All Documents
    4. Copy All Adverse Parties
    5. File Copy of Notice in State Court
  6. Remand
    1. Procedural Defect = Within 30 Days
    2. Lack of Subject Matter jurisdiction = Anytime
    3. No Appeal

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: The Erie Doctrine)

  1. Substantive Law = State Law
    1. Matters of Clearly Substantive Law
      1. Elements of Claim or Defense
      2. Statute of Limitations & Tolling of Statute of Limitations 
      3. Conflict or Choice of Law Rules
  2. Federal Law On Point In Direct Conflict = Federal Law
  3. Procedural Law = Federal Law
    1. FRCP = Arguably Procedural
  4. Procedural v. Substantive
    1. State Law Outcome Determinative
    2. Balance State Interest v. Federal Interest in Application of Particular Rule
    3. Avoid Forum Shopping

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: CA Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Classification)

  1. Limited Civil Cases = AIC Less Than or Equal to $25,000
    1. Limited Pleadings
    2. Limited Discovery
  2. Unlimited Civil Cases = AIC Exceeds $25,000 
  3. Small Claims 
    1. Individuals = AIC Less Than or Equal to $10,000 
    2. Corporations & Other Entities = AIC Less Than or Equal to $5,000 

16

Rule?

(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: CA Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Aggregation)

Multiple Claims Against Single Defendant = YES

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: CA Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Reclassification)

  1. Means 
    1. Amended Complaint, OR 
    2. Motion By Court or Party = Notice & Hearing Required
  2. Unlimited to Limited = Virtually Unobtainable
  3. Limited to Unlimited = Possibility

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(Subject Matter Jurisdiction: CA Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Multiple Claims)

  1. Cross Complaint in Limited Case
  2. Cross Complaint in Unlimited Case

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Topics? (5)

(Venue & Choice of Law)

  1. Proper Venue
  2. Transfer of Venue
  3. Choice of Law = Transferor Court
  4. Forum Non Conveniens
  5. CA Venue

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(Venue & Choice of Law: Proper Venue)

  1. Local Action Rule
  2. Transitory Actions
    1. All Defendants Reside
      1. Residence
        1. Natural Persons = Domicile
        2. Corporations = Personal Jurisdiction
      2. Exception: All Defendants Reside in Different Districts within Same State = Any District Where Any Defendant Resides
  3. Substantial Part of Claim Arose
  4. If No District
    1. Diversity = Defendant Subject to Personal Jurisdiction
    2. Federal Question = Where Defendant Can Be  Found

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(Venue & Choice of Law: Transfer of Venue)

  1. Requirements for Transfer
    1. Subject Matter Jurisdiction
    2. Personal Jurisdiction
    3. Proper Venue
  2. Original Venue Proper
    1. Convenience of the Parties
    2. Interests of Justice
      1. Public Factors
        1. Court Congestion
        2. Local Interest
        3. Forum Familiarity with Substantive Law
        4. Unfairness to Forum
      2. Private Factors
        1. Access to Evidence
        2. Availability of Witness Subpoenas
        3. Cost of Getting Witnesses to Forum
        4. Possibility of Viewing Premises
  3. Original Venue Improper
    1. Dismissal, OR
    2. Transfer if in Interests of Justice

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(Venue & Choice of Law: Forum Non Conveniens)

  1. Requirements
    1. Alternative Forum
    2. Transfer Impossible
    3. Plaintiff's Recovery = Irrelevant
    4. Plaintiff - Resident of Current Forum
  2. Convenience of the Parties
  3. Interests of Justice
    1. Public Factors
      1. Court Congestion
      2. Local Interest
      3. Forum Familiarity with Substantive Law
      4. Unfairness to Forum
    2. Private Factors
      1. Access to Evidence
      2. Availability of Witness Subpoenas
      3. Cost of Getting Witnesses to Forum
      4. Possibility of Viewing Premises

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(Venue & Choice of Law: CA Venue)

  1. Local Actions (Real Property) = County Where Land is Located
  2. Transitory Actions (i.e., Not Local Actions)
    1. General Rule = Any Defendant Resides When Case Filed
      1. All Defendants Non-CA Residents = Any County
    2. Contract Cases = Contract Entered Into or Performed 
    3. Personal Injury or Wrongful Death = Where Injury Arose
    4. Defendant = Corporation or Other Business Association
      1. Principal Place of Business
      2. Contract Entered Into or Performed, OR
      3. Breach of Contract Occurred or Liability Arose 
  3. Transfer
    1. Original Venue Improper
    2. Original Venue Proper
      1. Reason to Believe Impartial Trial Not Possible in Original Venue 
      2. Convenience of Witnesses & Ends of Justice Promoted, OR
      3. No Qualified Judge Available
  4. Inconvenient Forum

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Topics? (8)

(Joinder of Claims & Parties)

  1. Counterclaim
  2. Crossclaim
  3. Permissive Joinder
  4. Compulsory Joinder of Necessary & Indispensable Parties
  5. Impleader (Third Party Practice)
  6. Intervention
  7. Interpleader
  8. Class Actions

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Counterclaim)

  1. Compulsory = Same Transaction or Occurrence
    1. Waived If Not Filed
    2. Supplemental jurisdiction = YES
  2. Permissive = Not Same Transaction or Occurrence
    1. Supplemental jurisdiction = NO
  3. CA Counterclaim = Cross-Complaint Against Plaintiff

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Crossclaim)

  1. Must Arise Out of Same Transaction or Occurrence 
  2. Never Compulsory 
  3. Supplemental jurisdiction = YES
    1. Limitation Applies
  4. CA Crossclaims Against Co-Party = Cross Complaints Against Co-Party
    1. May Be Filed Anytime Before Court Has Set Trial Date
    2. Must Arise from Same Transaction or Occurrence 
    3. Never Compulsory

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Requirements? (3)

(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Permissive Joinder)

  1. Arise from Same Transaction or Occurrence 
  2. Commonality of Law or Fact 
  3. Subject Matter jurisdiction

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Compulsory Joinder of Necessary & Indispensable Parties)

 

  1. Necessary Parties
    1. Complete Relief Not Possible
    2. Missing Party's Interests Would Be Harmed, OR
    3. Missing Party's Claims Would Subject Party to Multiple Liability
  2. Jurisdictional Requirements
    1. Personal Jurisdiction
    2. joinder Will Not Destroy Diversity
  3. Effect of Failure
    1. Factors Considered
      1. Is There an Alternative Forum Available
      2. What is the Actual Likelihood of Harm
      3. Can Court Shape Relief to Avoid Harm
    2. Dismissal = Indispensable Party

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Impleader (Third Party Practice))

  1. Timing = Within 14 Days of Answering Complaint
  2. Requirements
    1. File Third Party Complaint 
    2. Serve Process on Third Party Defendant = Personal Jurisdiction 
    3. Subject Matter jurisdiction 
      1. Diversity 
      2. Federal Question, OR 
      3. Supplemental jurisdiction
  3. CA Impleader = Cross Complaint Against Third Party Defendant
    1. May Be Filed Anytime Before Court Has Set Trial Date
    2. Never Compulsory
    3. Broader Right than the Federal Standard
      1. Indemnity 
      2. Contribution, OR
      3. Any Claim if the Claim Arises from the Same Transaction or Occurrence 
    4. Third Party Defendant Must Respond Within 30 Days 

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Intervention)

  1. Intervention of Right
  2. Permissive Intervention
    1. Common Question of Law or Fact
    2. No Undue Delay or Prejudice
  3. CA Intervention
    1. Intervention of Right
    2. Permissive Intervention = Direct & Immediate Interest

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Interpleader)

  1. Statutory Interpleader
    1. Jurisdiction
      1. Diversity = Only One Claimant
      2. AIC = $500 or More
    2. Venue = Any District Where Any Claimant Resides 
    3. Service of Process = Nationwide
  2. Rule 22 Interpleader = Regular Diversity Requirements
    1. Jurisdiction 
      1. Diversity = Complete Diversity
      2. AIC = More Than $75,000 
    2. Venue = Normal Rules Apply
    3. Service of Process = Normal Rules Apply

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Topics? (7)

(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Class Actions)

  1. Requirements
  2. Categories for Class Actions
  3. Certification of Class
  4. Notice to Class
  5. Jurisdiction
  6. Settlements & Dismissals
  7. CA Class Actions

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Requirements? (4)

(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Class Actions: Requirements)

  1. Numerosity
  2. Commonality
  3. Typicality
  4. Adequacy

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Class Actions: Categories for Class Actions)

  1. Prejudice Class Actions
    1. Inconsistent Adjudications
    2. Necessary to Avoid Harm to Class Members or Opposing Party
  2. Injunctive & Declaratory Relief
    1. Defendant's Conduct Generally Applicable to Class
  3. Damage Class Actions
    1. Questions of Common Fact or Law Predominate
    2. Class Action Superior Method

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Class Actions: Certification of Class)

  1. Must Certify At Earliest Practical Time
  2. Must Define Class & Claims, Issues or Defenses
  3. Must Appoint Class Counsel
  4. Certification May Be Withdrawn or Altered

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Class Actions: Notice to Class)

  1. Prejudice = May
  2. Injunctive & Declaratory = May
  3. Damage = Must
    1. Notice

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Class Actions: Jurisdiction)

  1. Personal Jurisdiction
  2. Subject Matter Jurisdiction
    1. Federal Question, OR
    2. Diversity
      1. Complete Diversity = Only Representative
      2. AIC = Only Representative
  3. Class Action Fairness Act (CAFA)
    1. Jurisdictional Requirements
      1. Minimal Diversity
      2. AIC > $5 Million
    2. Mandatory Decline of Jurisdiction
      1. More Than Two-Thirds of Proposed Class Members Are Citizens of State Where Action Filed
      2. Defendant from Whom Significant Relief Sought is Citizen of State Where Action Filed
      3. Principal Injuries Occurred in the State Where Action Filed 
    3. Discretionary Decline of Jurisdiction
      1. More Than One-Third But Less Than Two-Thirds of Proposed Members Are Citizens of State Where Action Filed 
      2. Primary Defendants Are Also Citizens of State Where Action Filed

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Class Actions: Settlements & Dismissals)

  1. Court Approval Required
    1. Fairness Hearing Required
  2. Notice Required
    1. Damage Class Action = 2nd Opportunity to Opt Out Required

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Structure?

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(Joinder of Claims & Parties: Class Actions: CA Class Actions)

  1. Requirements
    1. Ascertainable Class
    2. Well-defined Community Interest
      1. Common Questions Predominate
      2. Adequate Representation
      3. Substantial Benefit to Parties & the Court
  2. Court Not Required to Appoint Class Counsel
  3. No Right to Opt Out
  4. Classification of Class Action as Limited or Unlimited = Aggregate Class Claims
  5. Settlements or Dismissals = Court Approval Required
  6. Individual Notice Not Required 
    1. Notice By Publication = OK
    2. Costs

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Topics? (3)

(Pleadings & Discovery)

  1. Service of Process
  2. Federal Pleadings = Notice Pleadings
  3. Discovery

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Topics? (3)

(Pleadings & Discovery: Service of Process)

  1. Requirements
  2. Procedures
  3. CA Service of Process

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Service of Process: Requirements)

  1. Summons
  2. Copy of the Complaint
  3. Within 120 Days of Filing Case
    1.  Exception: Good Cause for Delay

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Service of Process: Procedures)

  1. Who? = Any Non-Party At Least 18 Years Old
  2. How?
    1. Personal Service
    2. Substitute Service
      1. Defendant's Usual Place of Abode
      2. Person Served = Suitable Age &  Discretion Who Resides There
    3. Service Upon Authorized Agent
    4. Waiver By Mail
      1. Incentives for Defendant
        1. More Time to Answer
        2. Penalty = Costs of Formal Service-
        3. Only Waives Formal Service of Process
    5. State Law Methods
      1. State Where Federal Court Sits, OR
      2. State Where Service Effected 
  3. Service Outside of State
  4. Immunity from Service of Process
    1. In State to Appear in Other Civil Action, OR
      1. No Immunity in CA if Defendant in State to Appear in Other Civil Action
    2. Fraud or Deceit

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Service of Process: CA Service of Process)

  1. Within 60 Days
  2. Who = Any Nonparty At Least 18 Years Old
  3. How
    1. Personal Service
    2. Substitute Service
      1. Requirements
        1. Usual Abode or Mailing Address
        2. Competent Member of Household > 18 Years Old 
        3. Informed of Contents 
        4. Process Also Must Be Mailed 1st Class with Prepaid Postage
      2. Deemed Effective = 10 Days after Mailing
    3. Agent for Service of Process = Corporations & Other Business Entities
    4. Waiver By Mail = 20 Days
    5. By Publication
  4. Service Outside of CA

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Topics? (6)

(Pleadings & Discovery: Federal Pleadings = Notice Pleadings)

  1. CA Pleadings = Fact Pleadings
  2. Rule 11
  3. Complaints
  4. Defendant's Responses = Within 21  Days
  5. Counterclaim
  6. Amended Pleadings

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Federal Pleadings = Notice Pleadings: Rule 11)

  1. Effect of Signature
    1. No Improper Purpose
    2. Legal Contentions Warranted
    3. Factual Contentions Have or Will Have Evidentiary Support
    4. Denials of Factual Contentions Warranted By Evidence
  2. Sanctions
    1. Purpose = Deterrence
    2. Form of Sanctions
    3. Procedure
      1. Motion for Sanctions
        1. 21-Day Safe Harbor Provision
      2. On Court's Initiative (Sua Sponte)
        1. CA Rules = 21-Day Safe Harbor Provision
  3. CA Statute RE: Bad Faith & Frivolous Tactics in Litigation
    1. Frivolous
    2. Requirements = Motion & Opportunity to be Heard
    3. No 21-Day Safe Harbor Provision

47

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Federal Pleadings = Notice Pleadings: Complaints)

  1. Requirements 
    1. Statement of Subject Matter jurisdiction 
    2. Short & Plain Statement of Claim Showing Entitlement to Relief
    3. Demand for Relief Sought
  2. Special Matters
    1. Fraud
    2. Mistake
    3. Special Damages
  3. CA Complaints
    1. Statement of Facts
      1. Special Matters
        1. Fraud
        2. Civil Conspiracy 
        3. Tortious Breach of Contract 
        4. Unfair Business Practices 
        5. Product Liability Claims Among Multiple Defendants Arising from Exposure to Toxins
    2. Demand for Judgment for Relief
    3. Damages
      1. Exceptions
        1. Punitive Damages
          1. Default
        2. Personal Injury & Wrongful Death
          1. Default
    4. Fictitious Defendant = Relation Back

48

 Federal Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Federal Pleadings = Notice Pleadings: Defendant's Responses = Within 21 Days)

  1. Motions (Rule 12)
    1. 12(e) Motion for More Definite Statement
    2. 12(f) Motion to Strike
    3. 12(b) Motions to Dismiss
      1. (1) Lack of Subject Matter jurisdiction = Anytime
      2. (2) Lack of Personal jurisdiction = Waivable
      3. (3) Improper Venue = Waivable
      4. (4) Insufficiency of Process = Waivable
      5. (5) Insufficiency of Service of Process = Waivable
      6. (6) Failure to State a Claim = Anytime During Trial
      7. (7) Failure to Join Indispensable Party = Anytime During Trial
  2. Answers
    1. Timing 
      1. Within 21  Days of Service of Process 
        1. Exception: Waiver of Formal Service of Process = 60 Days, OR 
        2. Within 14 Days of Denial of Rule 12 Motion 
    2. Requirements
      1. Respond to Allegations of Complaint 
        1. Admit
        2. Deny
        3. State Lack of Sufficient Information to Admit or Deny
      2. Raise Affirmative Defenses 
        1. Statute of Limitations 
        2. Statute of Frauds 
        3. Res judicata 
        4. Assumption of Risk 
        5. Fraud 
        6. Self-Defense 
      3. Failure to Plea Affirmative Defense = Waiver

49

CA Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Federal Pleadings = Notice Pleadings: Defendant's Responses = Within 30 Days)

  1. General Demurrer
    1. Subject Matter jurisdiction, OR 
    2. Failure to State Facts Sufficient to Constitute a Cause of Action
  2. Special Demurrer
    1. Complaint Uncertain, Ambiguous, or Unintelligible
    2. Theories of Liability Unclear
    3. Lack of Legal Capacity 
    4. Existence of Duplicate Proceedings 
    5. Defect/Misjoinder of Parties 
    6. Failure to Plead Whether Contract Was Oral or Written, OR 
    7. Failure to File Certificate of Merit
  3. Motion to Quash Service of Summons = Special Appearance
    1. Lack of Personal Jurisdiction 
    2. Improper Process, OR 
    3. Improper Service of Process
  4. Motion to Dismiss or Stay for Inconvenient Forum 
  5. Motion to Strike
  6. Strategic Lawsuit Against Public Participation (SLAPP)
    1. SLAPP
    2. Anti-SLAPP Motion to Strike
      1. Defendant's Conduct is Constitutionally Protected Conduct
      2. Burden Shifts to Plaintiff to Show Reasonable Probability of Prevailing
      3. Not Permitted if Plaintiff Enforcing Right Other than Her Own
  7. Answer = General Appearance
    1. Contents 
      1. Responds to Allegations in Complaint 
      2. Raise Affirmative Defenses
    2. Timing
      1. 30 Days After Complaint, OR 
      2. 10 Days After Motion Denied 

50

Sructure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Federal Pleadings = Notice Pleadings: Counterclaim)

  1. Compulsory = Same Transaction or Occurrence
    1. Waived If Not Filed
    2. Supplemental jurisdiction = YES
  2. Permissive = Does Not Arise from Same Transaction or Occurrence

51

Federal Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Federal Pleadings = Notice Pleadings: Amended Pleadings)

  1. Right to Amend 
    1. General Rule = Once Within 21  Days of Serving the Pleading
    2. Responsive Pleading Required = 21  Days after Service of a Responsive Pleading or a Pre-Answer Motion
  2. With Consent at Trial
    1. Express Consent
    2. Implied Consent
      1. Variance With Objection
    3. Over Objection at Trial
  3. Relation Back
    1. Adding New Claim
    2. Changing Defendant
      1. Concerns the Conduct, Transaction or Occurrence as  Original Complaint 
      2. New Party Knew of the Suit Within 120 Days of Original Claim
      3. New Party Knew That But For Mistake, New Party Would Have Been Named Originally

52

CA Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Federal Pleadings = Notice Pleadings: Amended Pleadings)

  1. Matter of Course 
    1. Before Answer or Demurrer to Complaint
    2. After Demurrer Before Trial on Issue Raised by Demurrer
  2. With Consent at Trial
  3. Amendment to Conform With Evidence 
  4. Relation Back
    1. New Claims = Must Be Related to Original Claim
    2. Fictitious Defendants
      1. Original Complaint Filed Before SOL Had Run & Contained Allegations Against the Fictitious Defendant 
      2. Plaintiff Genuinely Ignorant of Doe Defendant's Identity 
      3. Doe Defendant Substituted with True Defendant Within 3 Years of Filing 

53

Topics? (7)

(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery)

  1. Required Discovery
  2. Discovery Tools
  3. Procedure (aka Separate Certification)
  4. Duty to Supplement
  5. Scope of Discovery
  6. Enforcement
  7. CA Discovery in Limited Cases

54

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Required Discovery)

  1. Initial Disclosures
    1. List of Relevant Witnesses
    2. Documents Supporting Claims or Defenses
    3. Computation of Damages 
    4. Relevant Insurance Policy
  2. Experts
    1. Identify
    2. Written Opinions
    3. Compensation
  3. Trial Evidence
  4. No Required Disclosures in CA

55

Tools? (5)

(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Discovery Tools)

  1. Depositions
  2. Interrogatories
  3. Requests to Produce
  4. Physical or Mental Examination
  5. Request for Admission

56

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Discovery Tools: Depositions)

  1. Nonparty Not Required to Attend Without Subpoena
  2. Party = No Subpoena Required
    1. Notice
    2. Proper Service
  3. Limit of 10
    1. CA Depositions = No Limit in Number in Unlimited Cases
  4. No Duplicate Depositions
  5. Cannot Exceed 1 Day of 7 Hours
    1. CA Depositions = No Time Restrictions
  6. Maximum 100 Miles for Nonparty
  7. Use at Trial
    1. Impeach Deponent 
    2. Any Purpose
      1. Deponent Adverse Party, OR
      2. Deponent Unavailable at Trial 

57

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Discovery Tools: Interrogatories)

  1. Must Respond or Object Within 30 Days
  2. Limit of 25
  3. Duty to Reasonably Investigate
  4. CA Interrogatories
    1. Form Interrogatories = No Limit on Number 
    2. Custom Interrogatories = Maximum of 35

58

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Discovery Tools: Requests to Produce)

  1. Nonparty = Subpoena Required
  2. Must Respond Within 30 Days of Service
  3. Must Be Described With Reasonable Particularity
  4. CA Requests to Produce 
    1. Non-Parties = Deposition with Subpoena Duces Tecum

59

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Discovery Tools: Physical or Mental Examination)

  1. Court Order Required
    1. Health In Actual Controversy 
    2. Good Cause Exists
  2. CA Physical or Mental Examination
    1. Can Lawyer Attend Examination? 
      1. Physical = Yes
      2. Mental = No Unless Court Order

60

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Discovery Tools: Requests for Admission)

  1. Must Respond Within 30 Days 
    1. Admit 
    2. Deny, OR
    3. State Lack of Information
  2. CA Requests for Admission
    1. Maximum of 35
      1. Exception: Verification of Document Authenticity

61

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Procedure (aka Separate Certification))

  1. Substantive Answers Signed Under Oath 
  2. Every Request Signed by Attorney
    1. Warranted 
    2. No Improper Purpose 
    3. Not Unduly Burdensome

62

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Duty to Supplement)

  1. Duty to Supplement: a party has an affirmative duty to correct material mistakes or omissions in required disclosures, interrogatories, request to produce and request for admission
  2. CA Supplemental Discovery = No Duty to Supplement
    1. Supplemental Interrogatories
    2. Supplemental Demand for Inspection

63

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Scope of Discovery)

  1. Standard = Anything Relevant to Claim or Defense
    1. Relevance
    2. CA Scope
  2. Privileged Material = Not Discoverable
  3. CA Right to Privacy
  4. Work Product
    1. CA Work Product = Only Material Prepared by Attorneys or Their Agents
    2. Absolute Protection 
      1. Mental Impressions 
      2. Opinions 
      3. Conclusions 
      4. Legal Theories
    3. Witness Statements May Be Discovered
      1. Substantial Need 
      2. Not Otherwise Available 
  5. Experts
    1. Trial Experts = May Be Deposed
    2. Consulting Experts = May Not Be Deposed
      1. Exception: Exceptional Need
    3. CA Experts
      1. List of Names 
      2. Declaration of Nature & Substance of Testimony 
      3. Expert's Qualifications 

64

Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: Discovery: Enforcement)

  1. Protective Order
  2. Sanctions = Good Faith Attempt Required
    1.  Partial Violation = Minimal Sanctions
      1. Motion to Compel
      2. Sanctions for Total Violation &  Recovery of Costs Available
    2. Total Violation = Severe Sanctions
      1. Recovery of Costs 
      2. Other Sanctions
        1. Contempt
        2. Establishment Order
        3. Strike Pleadings
        4. Disallow Evidence
        5. Dismiss Plaintiff's Case = Bad Faith Required
        6. Enter Default Judgment = Bad  Faith Required
  3. CA Enforcement
    1. Exception: Total Failure to Respond to Discovery Request 
    2. Protective Orders 
    3. Sanctions = Notice & Hearing Required 
      1. Monetary Sanctions 
      2. Contempt of Court 
      3. Establishment Order 
      4. Terminating Sanctions 
        1. Strike Pleadings 
        2. Stay Proceedings Until Discovery Obeyed
        3. Dismiss Plaintiff's Case
        4. Default judgment

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Structure?

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(Pleadings & Discovery: CA Discovery in Limited Cases)

  1. Depositions = Limited to 1 
  2. Interrogatories, Inspection Demands & Requests for Admission = 35 Total 
  3. Court Order Required for Any Additional Discovery 

66

Topics? (7)

(Trial)

  1. Disposition Without Trial
  2. Conferences
  3. Right to Jury
  4. Jury Selection
  5. Removing Case from a Jury
  6. Motion for New Trial
  7. Motion to Set Aside Judgment

67

Topics? (5)

(Trial: Disposition Without Trial)

  1. Dismissal
  2. Default Judgment
  3. Failure to State a Claim = Before Answer
  4. Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings = After Answer
  5. Summary Judgment = No Triable Issue of Material Fact

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(Trial: Disposition Without Trial: Dismissal)

  1. Voluntary Dismissal
    1. Without Prejudice
    2. With Prejudice
    3. Procedure
      1. Court Order, OR
      2. Written Notice
  2. CA Voluntary Dismissal
    1. After Trial Commences
  3. Involuntary Dismissal
  4. CA Involuntary Dismissal
    1. Discretionary Dismissal = Case Not Brought to Trial within 2 Years of Filing
    2. Mandatory Dismissal 
      1. Not Brought to Trial Within 5 Years of Filing
      2. Process Not Served Within 3 Years of Filing

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(Trial: Disposition Without Trial: Default Judgment)

  1. Default = Notation by Court Clerk
  2. Default Judgment
    1. By Clerk, OR
      1. No Response by Defendant
      2. Monetary Damages
      3. Affidavit by Plaintiff
        1. Affidavit = Sworn Statements
      4. Defendant - Minor or Incompetent
    2. By Court
  3. Relief from Default
    1. After Default Before Default judgment = Good Cause & Viable Defense
    2. After Default Judgment = Motion to Set Aside Judgment
  4. CA Default & Default Judgment
    1. Defendant Must Be Given Notice of Application for Entry of Default 
    2. Default Judgment by Clerk
      1. No Response by Defendant
      2. Claim = Contract or Judgment 
      3. Claim is for Sum Certain in Money 
      4. Defendant Not Served by Publication 
      5. Affidavit by Plaintiff Stating the Relevant Facts
    3. Default Judgment by Court
    4. Default Judgment Cannot Exceed or Differ from that Demanded in Complaint
    5. Relief from Default = Process Did Not Give Notice to Defendant within the Time to Respond
      1. Must Be Filed within Reasonable Time
        1. 6 Months After Service of Written Notice of Default (or Default Judgment), OR 
        2. 2 Years after Entry of Default Judgment 

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Structure?

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(Trial: Disposition Without Trial: Failure to State a Claim = Before Answer)

Face of the Complaint Only

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(Trial: Disposition Without Trial: Summary Judgment = No Triable Issue of Material Fact)

  1. Pierce the Pleadings
    1. Admissible Evidence Only
    2. Unverified Pleadings - Evidence
  2. Evidence Viewed in Light Most Favorable to Non-Moving Party 
  3. No Reasonable Trier of Fact Standard
  4. Deadlines 
    1. Motion May Be Brought Anytime Up Until 30 Days After the Close of Discovery 
    2. Opposing Party Must File  Response Within 21 Days of Being Served with Motion 
    3. Moving Party May File Response Within 14 Days
  5. CA Motion for Summary Judgment 
    1. Moving Party Must File Statement of Undisputed, Material Facts
    2. Burden Shifts of Non-Moving Party
    3. Deadlines
      1. Motion May Be Brought 60 Days After General Appearance of Non-Moving Party
      2. Moving Party Must File & Serve Motion 75 Days Before Hearing on Motion
      3. Opposing Party's Papers Must be Filed at Least 14 Days Before Hearing 
      4. Reply Papers by Moving Party Must be Filed No More than 5 Days Before Hearing

72

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(Trial: Conferences)

  1. Rule 26(f) Conference
    1. Timing
    2. Discovery Plan
    3. CA Distinction = No Rule 26(f) Conference
  2. Pretrial Conferences
    1. Reasons for Pretrial Conferences
    2. Determine Course of Trial
      1. Pretrial Order May Be Amended
        1. To Prevent Manifest Injustice
        2. Variance without Objection (Implied Consent) 

73

Structure?

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(Trial: Right to Jury)

  1. Federal Court = Civil Actions at Law
    1. Civil Actions Involving Law & Equity
      1.  Right to Jury = Questions of Law Only
    2. Demand Requirement = No Later Than 14 Days After Being Served with Last Pleading Raising a Question of Law
  2. CA Right to Jury
    1. CA Civil Actions Involving Law & Equity
      1. Equity Clean Up Doctrine = No Jury Required
    2. CA Demand Requirement = At Time Case is Set for Trial or Within 5 Days of Scheduling Trial Date

74

Structure?

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(Trial: Jury Selection)

  1. Due Process Requirements = Fair & Impartial
  2. Equal Protection Requirements = Representative Cross-Section of the Community
  3. Voir Dire
    1. Exclusion of Prospective Jurors 
      1. For Cause = Unlimited
    2. Any Reason Other Than Race or Gender = Three Preemptory Challenges
      1. Exclusion Based on Race or Gender Unconstitutional
      2. CA Six Preemptory Challenges
  4. Number of Jurors
    1. CA Number of Jurors = 12 unless parties agree in open court to lesser number
  5. Verdict = Unanimous
    1. CA Verdict = 75% OK

75

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(Trial: Removing Case from a Jury)

  1. Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law (aka Directed Verdict)
    1. When = After Non-Moving Side Has Presented Its Case 
      1. Defendant
        1. Close of Plaintiff's Evidence, OR
        2. Close of All Trial Evidence
      2. Plaintiff = Only After Close of All Trial Evidence
    2. Standard = No Reasonable Person Could Differ
    3. Evidence Viewed in Light Most Favorable to Non-Moving Party
  2. Renewed Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law (formerly Judgment Notwithstanding the Verdict)
    1. When = After Verdict
    2. Must Have Filed Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law
    3. Standard = No Reasonable Person Could Have Reached the Verdict
  3. CA Removing Case from a Jury 
    1. Motion for judgment as a Matter of Law = Motion for Directed Verdict 
      1. Only Available at the Close of All Evidence 
      2. After Plaintiff's Case = Motion for Non Suit
    2. Renewed Motion for judgment as a Matter of Law = Judgment Notwithstanding the Verdict 
      1. Not Required to Make Motion for Directed Verdict (Motion for Judgment as Matter of Law) at Trial 
      2. When = Must File Notice of Intention to Move before Judgment or Earlier of: 
        1. 15 Days of Mailing or Service of Notice of Entry of Judgment, OR 
        2. 180 Days after Entry of Judgment

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(Trial: Motion for New Trial)

  1. When = Within 28 Days After Judgment Entered 
    1. CA = Same as JNOV
  2. Grounds 
    1. Prejudicial Error
    2. Misconduct by Judge, Adverse Party or Juror 
    3. Newly Discovered Evidence
    4. Erroneous Jury Instructions 
    5. Verdict Goes Against the Weight of the Evidence
    6. Excessive or Inadequate Damages 
      1. Remittitur = Plaintiff Has Choice of Accepting Less or New Trial
      2. CA Additur = Defendant Has Choice of Paying More or New Trial

77

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(Trial: Motion to Set Aside Judgment)

  1. Anytime 
    1. Clerical Error 
  2. Within One Year 
    1. Mistake or Excusable Neglect 
    2. Fraud, Misrepresentation, or Other Misconduct by Adverse Party 
    3. Newly Discovered Evidence = Reasonable Time
  3. Within a Reasonable Time 
    1. Judgment Void
  4. CA Motion to Set Aside Judgment = Mistake, Inadvertence, Surprise or Excusable Neglect 
    1. Motion Must Include Affidavit of Fault by Party or Lawyer
    2. Timing = Reasonable Time Not to Exceed 6 Months After Entry of Judgment

78

Topics? (3)

(Final judgment, Appellate Review & Effect on Future Cases)

  1. Appellate Review
  2. CA Appellate Review
  3. Res Judicata & Collateral Estoppel (CA = FRCP)

79

Structure?

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(Final judgment, Appellate Review & Effect on Future Cases: Appellate Review)

  1. Final Judgment Rule
    1. Procedure 
      1. Where? = In Trial Court 
      2. When? = Notice of Appeal Filed Within 30 Days of Entry of Final Judgment 
    2. No Appeals on Motions to Remand
  2. Interlocutory Appeals
    1. Preliminary Injunctions & Temporary Restraining Orders 
    2. Appointments of Receivers 
    3. Interlocutory Appeals Act
    4. Collateral Order Doctrine
      1. Double jeopardy Defense 
      2. State Sovereign Immunity Under 11th Amendment 
      3. Government Official Qualified Immunity 
      4. Foreign Sovereign Immunity 
      5. Absolute Presidential Immunity
    5. Class Action Certification = Within 14 Days

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Structure?

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(Final judgment, Appellate Review & Effect on Future Cases: CA Appellate Review)

  1. The Basics
    1. Final Judgment Rule
      1. Jugment for One of Several Parties
    2. When?
      1. 60 Days After Service of "Notice of Entry" of Judgment, OR
      2. 180 Days after Entry of Judgment if No Notice Served
    3. Where?
    4. Limited & Small Claims = Appellate Division of Superior Court
  2. Interlocutory Appeal
    1. Permitted by Statute
      1. Order Granting Motion to Quash Service of Summons
      2. Order Granting Dismissal/Stay for Inconvenient Forum (Forum Non Conveniens) 
      3. Order Granting New Trial
      4. Order Denying Judgment Notwithstanding the Verdict (JNOV)
      5. Order Denying Class Action Certification
      6. Order Granting, Dissolving, or Refusing to Grant/Dissolve an Injunction
      7. Order Directing Payment of Monetary Sanctions > $5,000, OR
      8. Collateral Order Rule
        1. Trial Court Renders Dispositive Interlocutory Order 
        2. On Matter That is Collateral to Merits of the Action 
        3. Order Directs Payment of Money or Performance of an Act
  3. Extraordinary Writ
    1. Types of Extraordinary Writs 
      1. Writ of Mandate, OR
      2. Writ of Prohibition
    2. Requirements
      1. Irreparable Harm if Writ Not Issued 
      2. Standard Route of Appeal Inadequate 
      3. Beneficial Interest in the Outcome of Writ Proceeding 
    3. Extraordinary Writ Only Method of Appeal = Denial of Motion to Quash Service of Summons

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(Final Judgment, Appellate Review & Effect on Future Cases: Res Judicata & Collateral Estoppel (CA = FRCP)

  1. Preliminary Matters 
    1. Governing Law = Law of System that Presided over Original Action
    2. Earlier Case on Appeal
      1. Federal = Yes 
      2. CA = No
    3. Preclusion = Affirmative Defense
  2. Res Judicata = Claim Preclusion
    1. Elements
      1. Same Claimant Against Same Defendant
      2. Related to Same Transaction or Occurrence of Previously Litigated Claim (Cause of Action) 
        1. Federal Law = Claim
        2. CA Law = Cause of Action (aka, "Primary Rights")
      3. Claim Actually Litigated or Could Have Been Litigated 
      4. Previous Claim Resulted in Valid, Final Judgment on the Merits
        1. Exceptions
          1. Jurisdiction 
          2. Venue 
          3. Indispensable Parties 
          4. Statute of Limitations
      5. Merger & Bar 
      6. Merger = Plaintiff Won 1st Case
      7. Bar = Defendant Won 1st Case
  3. Collateral Estoppel = Issue Preclusion
    1. Elements
      1. Previously Litigated Issue of Law or Fact
      2. Actually Litigated
      3. Final Judgment on the Merits 
      4. Issue Essential (Non-Collateral) to Judgment in First Case
      5. At Least One Party from Previous Litigation is Present
  4. Non-Mutual Collateral Estoppel = Use By Non-Party
    1. Non-Mutual Defensive Collateral Estoppel = Use by Non-Party Defendant
      1. Full & Fair Opportunity to Litigate
    2. Non-Mutual Offensive Collateral Estoppel = Use By Non-Party Plaintiff
      1. Permitted if Fair
        1. Full & Fair Opportunity to Litigate 
        2. Multiple Suits Foreseeable 
        3. Plaintiff Could Have Joined Original Action 
        4. No Inconsistent Judgments on the Record