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Flashcards in Constitutional Law Deck (42):
1

Topics? (4)

(Judicial Power)

  1. Cases & Controversies Requirements
  2. Supreme Court's Appellate Jurisdiction
  3. Eleventh Amendment Limitations on Federal Court Review
  4. Abstention

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(Judicial Power: Cases & Controversies Requirement)

  1. Standing
    1. Elements 
      1. Injury
        1. Personally Suffered Injury. 
          1. Economic Harm = Best Injury for Standing
        2. Likelihood of Future Harm Requirement for Injunctive or Declaratory Relief
      2. Causation
      3. Redressability
    2. Special Cases 
      1. 3rd Party Standing
        1. Close Relationship
        2. 3rd Party Unlikely to Be Able Assert Own Rights, OR 
        3. Associational Standing
          1. Individual Members Have Standing to Sue 
          2. Interests Related to Purpose of Organization
          3. Neither Claim Nor Relief Requires Participation of Individual Members 
      2. No General Grievances
        1. General Grievances?
          1. Exception: Establishment Clause
  2. Ripeness
    1. Fitness of the Issues in Record for Judicial Review
    2. Hardship Plaintiff Will Suffer Without Pre-Enforcement Review
  3. Mootness
    1. Exceptions 
      1. Wrong Capable of Repetition But Evading Review
      2. Voluntary Cessation
      3. Class Action Suits
  4. Political Question Doctrine
    1. Republican Form of Government Clause of Article IV
    2. Challenges to the President's Foreign Policy 
    3. Challenges to Impeachment & Removal Process 
    4. Challenges to Partisan Gerrymandering

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(Judicial Power: Supreme Court's Appellate Jurisdiction)

  1. Original & Exclusive Jurisdiction
  2. Writ of Certiorari
    1. State Court Cases
      1. Constitutional Challenge of Federal Statue 
      2. ConstitutionaI Challenge of Federal Treaty 
      3. State Statute Violates Federal Law 
    2. Federal Court of Appeals 
  3. Mandatory jurisdiction
    1. 3 Judge Federal District Court Decisions Granting or Denying Injunctive Relie

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(Judicial Power: Eleventh Amendment Limitations on Federal Court Review)

  1. Suits Barred by the Eleventh Amendment?
    1. Action Against State for Damages
    2. Action Against State for Injunctive or Declaratory Relief
    3. Action Against State Officials for Retroactive Damages
    4. Action Against State for Injunctive or Declaratory Relief
    5. Action Against State Officials for Retroactive Damages
    6. Actions to Quiet Title in State Owned Land
    7. Actions Against State Officials for Violating State Law 
  2. Exceptions
    1. Express Waiver
    2. Actions Against Local  Governments or Municipalities
    3. §5 of the Fourteenth Amendment
    4. Federal Government or Other State Sues State Government, OR 
    5. Bankruptcy Proceeding
  3. Actions Against State Officials
    1. Injunctive Relief
    2. Monetary Damages for Personal Liability
  4. Doctrine of Sovereign Immunity = Bars Suit Against State in State Court or Federal Agency

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(Judicial Power: Abstention)

  1. Unsettled Question of State Law
  2. Pending State Proceeding

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Standards? (3)

(Judicial Power: Standards of Review)

  1. Rational Basis
  2. Intermediate Scrutiny
  3. Strict Scrutiny

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Topics? (4)

(Legislative Power)

  1. No General Federal Police Power
  2. Enumerated & Implied Powers
  3. Limitations on Congressional Power 
  4. Delegation of Powers

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(Legislative Power: No General Federal Police Power)

  1. Military 
  2. Federal Lands & Territories 
  3. Native American Reservations 
  4. District of Columbia 

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(Legislative Power: Enumerated & Implied Powers)

  1. Necessary & Proper "Clause"
  2. Taxing Power
    1. Taxes Will Be Upheld If 
      1. Reasonable Relationship to Revenue Production, OR 
      2. Independent Authority to Regulate the Activity Taxed 
    2. No Power to Tax Exports to Foreign Countries
  3. Spending Power
  4. The Commerce Clause
    1. Requirements for Federal Law Regulating Interstate Commerce
      1. Regulate the Channels of Interstate Commerce 
        1. Channels?
      2. Regulate the Instrumentalities of or Persons & Things in Interstate Commerce, OR  
        1. Instrumentalities Of?
        2. Persons & Things In?
      3. Regulate Activities That Have Substantial Effect on Interstate Commerce 
        1. Intrastate Activity
        2. Regulation of Noncommercial or Noneconomic Activity
  5. Impeachment & Removal Power
    1. Impeachment By House = Majority Vote
      1. Impeachment Does Not Remove from Office
    2. Conviction By Senate = 2/3rds Vote
  6. War Powers
    1. Declare War 
    2. Raise & Support Armies 
    3. Provide for & Maintain Navy 
    4. Institute Economic or Social Controls During Wartime 
    5. Establish Military Courts & Tribunals 
  7. Investigatory Power
  8. Property Power
  9. Power over Citizenship
    1. Citizens
      1. Fraud in Naturalization Process
      2. Voluntary Relinquishment of Citizenship
    2. Resident Aliens
    3. Non-Resident Aliens
  10. Power to Regulate Elections
    1. 15th Amendment
    2. 19th Amendment
    3. 24th Amendment
    4. 26th Amendment
    5. Voter's Rights Act
  11. Speech or Debate Clause
    1. Exceptions 
      1. Treason, Felony, & Breach of the Peace 
      2. Bribes
  12. Other Powers 
    1. Postal Power
      1. Scope
    2. Fiscal Power
    3. Bankruptcy Power
    4. Patent & Copyright
    5. Admiralty

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(Legislative Power: Limitations on Congressional Power)

  1. 10th Amendment
    1. May Not Compel State Legislative or Regulatory Activity
      1. Exception: Strings on Financial Grants
        1. Conditions Must Be Expressly Stated
        2. Conditions Must Relate to the Purpose of the Program
    2. May Prohibit Harmful Commercial Activity by State Governments
  2. §5 of the 14th Amendment

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(Legislative Power: Delegation of Powers)

  1. No Limit
    1. Intelligible Standards 
    2. Power Not Uniquely Confined to Congress
  2. Bicameralism & Presentment Requirements
    1. Bicameralism
    2. Presentment
    3. Unconstitutional Actions 
      1. Legislative Veto
      2. Line Item Veto
  3. Delegation of Executive Power = Prohibited

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(Executive Power)

  1. Foreign Powers
  2. Domestic Powers
  3. Chief Executive Powers Generally (Executive Orders): Tripartite Formula of the Steel Seizure Case

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(Executive Power: Foreign Powers)

  1. Treaties
    1. Requirements
      1. Negotiated by President 
      2. Ratified by 2/3rds of the Senate 
    2. Conflicts of Law
      1. State Law = Treaty Prevails
      2. Federal Law = Last in Time Prevails
      3. US Constitution = Constitution Prevails
  2. Executive Agreement
    1. Requirements
      1. Signed By 
        1. President 
        2. Head of Foreign Nation 
    2. Conflicts of Law
      1. State Law = Executive Agreement Prevails
      2. Federal Law = Federal Law Prevails
      3. US Constitution = Constitution Prevails
  3. Deployment of Troops Overseas

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(Executive Power: Domestic Powers)

  1. Take Care Clause
  2. Appointment Power
    1. Inferior Officers
      1. Inferior Officers?
    2. Congress Prohibited from Delegating Appointment Power to Itself or Its Officers
  3. Removal Power
    1. Congressional Limitations on Removal Power
      1. Office Where Independence from President Desirable
      2. Statute Limits But Does Not Prohibit Removal
  4. Presidential Immunity
  5. Executive Privilege
  6. Presidential Pardon
    1. Exception: No Pardon for Impeachment
  7. Veto Power
    1. Line Item Veto Unconstitutional
    2. Pocket Veto
      1. Congress is in Session = Bill Becomes Law 
      2. Congress Not in Session = Automatically Vetoed 

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(Executive Power: Chief Executive Powers Generally (Executive Orders): Tripartite Formula of the Steel 
Seizure Case)

  1. Maximum Authority (Green Light)
  2. Zone of Twilight (Yellow Light)
  3. Lowest Power (Red Light)
    1. Rejection of Proposed Power ("Gray Area")

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Topics? (4)

(Federalism & Interstate Commerce)

  1. Preemption & the Supremacy Clause
  2. State Regulation of Interstate Commerce
  3. State Taxation of Interstate Commerce
  4. Full Faith & Credit Clause 

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(Federalism & Interstate Commerce: Preemption and the Supremacy Clause)

  1. Express Preemption
    1. Narrowly Construed
    2. Environmental Standards
  2. Implied Preemption
    1. In Direct Conflict
    2. State Law Substantially Impedes Federal Objective
    3. Field Preemption
  3. Federal Immunity from State Regulation
    1. Taxation
    2. Regulation

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(Federalism & Interstate Commerce: State Regulation of Interstate Commerce)

  1. Dormant Commerce Clause (aka Negative Implications of the Commerce Clause)
    1. Law Does Discriminate
      1. Exceptions 
        1. Necessary to Important State Interest
          1. Necessary?
        2. Congressional Approval
        3. Market Participant
    2. Law Action Does Not Discriminate But Undue Burden
      1. Balancing Test = Undue Burden on Interstate Commerce v. Benefits of Law to State
  2. Privileges & Immunities Clause of Article IV
    1. Law Does Discriminate
      1. Discriminates Against Out-of-Staters With Respect To Either 
        1. Civil Liberties, OR 
        2. Commercial Activities
      2. Not Applicable To 
        1. Corporations
        2. Aliens 
      3. Substantial justification Exception
        1. Nonresidents Cause or Contribute to the Problem 
        2. No Less Restrictive Means
    2. Law Does Not Discriminate
  3. Privileges or Immunities Clause of the 14th Amendment

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(Federalism & Interstate Commerce: State Taxation of Interstate Commerce)

  1. 4 Part Test
    1. Not Discriminate
    2. Substantial Nexus
    3. Fairly Apportioned
    4. Fair Relationship

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(Federalism & Interstate Commerce: Full Faith & Credit Clause)

  1. Valid Judgment
    1. Proper jurisdiction 
      1. Personal jurisdiction 
      2. Subject Matter jurisdiction 
    2. Proper Notice 
    3. Reasonable Opportunity to be Heard 
  2. Judgment on the Merits
  3. Judgment is Final

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(State Action Requirement) 

  1. State Action
  2. Private Action
    1. §2 of the 13th Amendment
    2. Commerce Clause
    3. §5 of the 14th Amendment
  3. Exceptions 
    1. Public Function Exception
    2. Entanglement Exception
      1. State Action
        1. Courts Enforcing Racially Restrictive Covenants 
        2. Government Leasing Space to a Private Entity that Racially Discriminates 
        3. Government Providing Free Texts Books to Schools that Racially Discriminates 
        4. Private Entity Regulates Interscholastic Sports Within a State 
      2. Not State Action 
        1. Government Subsidy Insufficient for State Action
        2. NCAA Orders Suspension of Basketball Coach at a State University
        3. Private Club with Liquor License from State Racially Discriminates 
  4. Application of the Bill of Rights
    1. Incorporated into Due Process Clause of 14th Amendment
      1. Exceptions
        1. Right to Not Have Soldier Quartered in Your House (3rd Amendment) 
        2. Right to Grand jury Indictment in Criminal Cases (5th Amendment) 
        3. Right to jury Trial in Civil Cases (7th Amendment) 
        4. Right Against Excessive Fines (8th Amendment) 

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Topics? (4)

(Due Process & Equal Protection)

  1. Leveles of Scrutiny
  2. Due Process
  3. Equal Protection
  4. Fundamental Rights

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(Due Process & Equal Protection: Levels of Scrutiny)

  1. Rational Basis Test
    1. Means = Rationally Related 
    2. Ends = Conceivable Legitimate Purpose
    3. Burden of Proof = Challenger
  2. Intermediate Scrutiny
    1. Means = Substantially Related
    2. Ends = Actual & Important Interest
    3. Burden of Proof = Government 
  3. Strict Scrutiny
    1. Means = Necessary
      1. Least Restrictive Alternative Analysis
    2. Ends = Actual & Compelling Interest
    3. Burden of Proof = Government

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(Due Process & Equal Protection: Due Process)

  1. Procedural Due Process
    1. No Duty to Protect from Private Harm
    2. Intentional or Reckless Act
      1. Emergencies = "Shock the Conscience" Standard
    3. Deprivation of Life, Liberty, or Property 
      1. Life
      2. Liberty
        1. Institutionalization 
          1. Adult
          2. Child
        2. Harm to Reputation
        3. Prisoners
      3. Property
        1. Entitlement
    4. Procedures Required
      1. Private Interest of Individual Affected by Official Action
      2. Risk of Erroneous Deprivation
      3. Probable Value of Additional or Substitute Procedural Safeguards
      4. Government's Interests
    5. Examples of Procedures Required
      1. Termination of Welfare Benefits = Pre-Termination Notice & Hearing
      2. Termination of Social Security/Disability Benefits = Post Termination Notice & Hearing 
      3. Prejudgment Attachment or Government Seizure of Assets = Preceded by Notice & Hearing
        1. Property Used in Illegal Activity
      4. American Citizen Detained as Enemy Combatant = Due Process Required
      5. Permanent Termination of Parental Custody = Notice & Hearing 
      6. Punitive Damages = Instructions to Jury & Judicial Review 
        1. Grossly Excessive Punitive Damages = Violate Due Process
      7. Discipline By Public School = Notice of Charges & Opportunity to Explain 
        1. Corporal Punishment
    6. Bill of Attainder Unconstitutional
  2. Substantive Due Process
    1. Deprivation of Economic Liberties = Rational Basis Test
      1. The Contracts Clause
        1. Private Contracts = Intermediate Scrutiny
          1. Substantially Impairs Existing Contract 
          2. Important & Legitimate Public Interest 
          3. Reasonably & Narrowly Tailored Means 
        2. Government Contracts = Strict Scrutiny
        3. Ex Post Facto Laws
          1. Retroactive Criminal Liability = Unconstitutional
          2. Retroactive Civil Liability = Rational Basis Standard
      2. The Takings Clause
        1. Possessory Taking
        2. Regulatory Taking
          1. Government Restrictions on Development
          2. Regulations Existed When Property Acquired
          3. Temporary Denial of Use of Property
        3. Public Use
        4. Just Compensation = Measured by the Loss to the Owner
          1. Invalid Taking

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(Due Process & Equal Protection: Equal Protection)

  1. Constitutional Provisions of Equal Protection
    1. Federal Government = Due Process Clause of 5th Amendment 
    2. State & Local Governments = Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment 
  2. Equal Protection Framework
    1. What is the Classification?
    2. What is the Level of Scrutiny for that Classification?
    3. Does the Government Action Satisfy the Level of Scrutiny? 
  3. Race & National Origin Classification 
    1. Level of Scrutiny = Strict Scrutiny
    2. Proving Existence of Race & National Origin Classification 
      1. Facially Discriminates, OR 
      2. Facially Neutral
        1. Discriminatory Impact 
        2. Discriminatory Intent 
    3. Discriminatory Use of Peremptory Challenges Based on Race = Unconstitutional
    4. Racial Classification Benefiting Minorities
      1. Level of Scrutiny = Strict Scrutiny
        1. Compelling Government Interest? 
          1. To Remedy Clearly Proven Past Discrimination
          2. Diversified Student Body 
      2. Numerical Set Asides Require Clear Proof of Past Discrimination 
      3. Public School Systems
      4. Educational Institutions May Use Race as a Factor
        1. Quantifying Race = Unconstitutional 
          1. Quotas or Set Asides, OR 
          2. Points Awarded to Applicant Score Solely on the Basis of Race 
  4. Alienage Classifications
    1. Level of Scrutiny 
      1. Generally Strict Scrutiny
      2. Rational Basis
        1. Self-Government & Democratic Process
          1. Areas Where Government May Discriminate Against Aliens 
            1. Voting 
            2. Jurors 
            3. Police Officers 
            4. Teachers 
            5. Probation Officers 
          2. Congressional Discrimination Against Aliens
      3. Intermediate Scrutiny
        1. Discrimination Against Undocumented Alien Children
  5. Gender Classifications 
    1. LeveI of Scrutiny 
      1. Intermediate Scrutiny
      2. "Exceedingly Persuasive Justification" 
    2. Proving Existence of Gender Classification
      1. Facially Discriminates, OR 
      2. Facially Neutral
        1. Discriminatory Impact 
        2. Discriminatory Intent 
    3. Discriminatory Use of Peremptory Challenges Based on Gender = Unconstitutional
    4. Classifications Benefiting Women = Intermediate Scrutiny
      1. Role Stereotypes = Unconstitutional
      2. Remedy Past Discrimination = Generally Valid
  6. Legitimacy Classifications = Intermediate Scrutiny
    1. Law Provides Benefit to All Marital Children but Not to Non-Marital = Unconstitutional
    2. Law Provides Benefit to Some Non-Marital Children but Not to Others = Strict Scrutiny
  7. Religion Classifications = Assumed Strict Scrutiny
  8. Rational Basis Review
    1. Age Discrimination 
    2. Disability Discrimination 
    3. Wealth Discrimination 
    4. Economic Regulations 
    5. Sexual Orientation Discrimination 
    6. Alienage Classifications Re: Self Government & Democratic Process 
    7. Congressional Discrimination Against Aliens

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(Due Process & Equal Protection: Fundamental Rights)

  1. Substantive Due Process or Equal Protection Violation? 
    1. Denied to Everyone = Substantive Due Process
    2. Denied to Some But Not Others = Equal Protection
  2. Right to Privacy
    1. Strict Scrutiny Standard
      1. Right to Marry 
      2. Right to Procreate 
      3. Right to Purchase & Use Contraceptives 
      4. Right to Read Obscene Material in One's Home 
        1. Exception: Child Pornography 
      5. Right of Parents 
        1. Right to Custody of Children 
          1. Exception: Irrebuttable Presumption that Husband is Father
        2. Right to Control Upbringing of One's Children 
      6. Right to Keep Family Together
      7. No Right to Physician-Assisted Suicide
    2. Level of Scrutiny Unknown But Fundamental Rights
      1. Right to Engage in Private Homosexual Activity
      2. Right to Refuse Medical Treatment
        1. Competent Adults May Refuse Medical Treatment
        2. Clear & Convincing Evidence for Treatment Termination
        3. OK to Prevent Family Members from Making Decision to Terminate
  3. Right to Abortion (aka Right to Reproductive Choice)
    1. No Strict Scrutiny Standard for Abortion 
      1. Prior to Viability = Undue Burden Test
        1. Undue Burden? 
          1. 24 Hour Waiting Period = No
          2. Licensed Physicians Requirement = No
          3. Prohibition of Partial Birth Abortions = No
      2. After Viability
    2. Government Has No Duty 
      1. To Subsidize Abortions, OR 
      2. To Provide Facilities for Abortion 
    3. Unconstitutional Requirements for Married Women
      1. Spousal Consent = Undue Burden, OR 
      2. Spousal Notification = Undue Burden 
    4. Parent Notice & Consent Laws for Unmarried Minors
      1. Judicial Bypass
        1. Abortion in Minor's Best Interest, OR 
        2. Minor Mature Enough to Decide Herself 
  4. Right to Bear Arms
  5. Right to Travel 
    1. Strict Scrutiny Standard 
      1. Freedom of Movement
      2. Durational Residency Requirements
        1. Voting Residency Requirements = 50 Days Maximum
    2. Rational Basis = Foreign Travel
  6. Right to Vote 
    1. Restrictions on the Right to Vote = Strict Scrutiny
      1. Unconstitutional Requirements 
        1. Property Ownership
          1. Exception: Special Purpose Elections 
        2. Poll Taxes
      2. Exceptions 
        1. Residency 
        2. Age 
        3. Citizenship 
    2. Regulations Preventing Voter Fraud = On Balance Desirable
    3. One Person One Vote Principle
      1. Establishing Voting Districts
      2. Congressional Elections 
        1. Congressional Districts Within a State = Almost Exact Mathematical Equality
        2. Congress Apportionment Among the States = More Deference
      3. State & Local  Elections for Government Bodies
        1. Congressional Districts Within a State = Almost Exact Mathematical Equality
        2. Congress Apportionment Among the States = More Deference
      4. State & Local Elections for Government Bodies
        1. Unjustifiably Large?
      5. Exceptions 
        1. Special Purpose Government Units: Water Storage Districts
        2. At Large Elections
          1. At Large Election?
    4. Racial Gerrymandering = Strict Scrutiny
    5. Recount in Presidential Elections without Preexisting Standards = Unconstitutional
  7. Not Fundamental Rights
    1. Right to Education 
    2. Right to Physician-Assisted Suicide 
    3. Right to Practice a Trade or Profession 
    4. Right to Foreign Travel

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First two levels?

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(First Amendment)

  1. Freedom of Speech
    1. Regulation of Unprotected Speech
    2. Content Based Regulations of Protected Expression = Strict Scrutiny
    3. Content Neutral Regulations of Protected Expression
    4. Commercial Speech
    5. Privacy Issues of the Press
    6. Symbolic Speech (Expressive Conduct)
    7. Prior Restraint
    8. Vagueness & Overbreadth
    9. Unfettered Discretion
    10. Anonymous Speech
    11. Campaign Contributions
  2. Freedom of Association
    1. Prohibition on Group Membership = Strict Scrutiny
    2. Punishment for Group Membership
    3. Requiring Disclosure of Group Association Where Disclosure Would Discourage 
      Association = Strict Scrutiny
    4. Prohibiting Groups from Discriminating
  3. Freedom of Religion
    1. Religion?
    2. Free Exercise Clause
    3. The Establishment Clause = Separation of Church & States

28

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Regulation of Unprotected Speech)

  1. Government Officials' Speech
  2. True Threats
  3. Imminent Lawless Action
    1. Purpose to Cause Imminent Lawless Action
    2. Substantial Likelihood of Imminent Lawless Action
  4. Fighting Words
    1. Fighting Words?
  5. Defamation & Libel
    1. Public Officials & Public Figures
      1. Requirements 
        1. False Statement 
        2. Actual Malice 
          1. Knowledge, OR 
          2. Reckless Disregard
      2. Burden of Proof = Clear & Convincing Evidence by Plaintiff
    2. Private Figures
      1. Matters of Public Concern 
        1. Requirements 
          1. False Statement 
          2. Negligence 
        2. Punitive & Presumed Damages = Actual Malice Required
        3. Burden of Proof = Clear & Convincing Evidence by Plaintiff
      2. Not Matters of Public Concern 
        1. Requirements 
          1. False Statement 
          2. Negligence 
      3. Punitive & Presumed Damages = Malice Not Required 
      4. Burden of Proof = Defendant
  6. Obscenity 
    1. Miller Test for Obscenity
      1. Appeals to the Prurient Interest
        1. Prurient Interest = Shameful or Morbid Interest in Sex
      2. Patently Offensive
      3. Lacks Serious Literary, Artistic, Political or Scientific Value
    2. Adult Bookstores & Movie Theaters = Zoning Ordinances Permissible
    3. Government May Seize Assets of Business Convicted of Obscenity Violations 
    4. Child Pornography
    5. Private Possession Cannot Be Regulated
      1. Exception: Child Pornography
    6. Obscene, Profane & Indecent Speech = Protected by the 1st Amendment
      1. Exceptions 
        1. Broadcast Media 
        2. Schools

29

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Content Based Regulations of Protected Expression = Strict Scrutiny)

  1. Types of Content Based Restrictions 
    1. Subject Matter Restriction, OR 
    2. Viewpoint Restriction

30

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Content Neutral Regulations of Protected Expression)

  1. Public Forums = Intermediate Scrutiny
    1. Test
      1. Subject Matter Neutral
      2. Viewpoint Neutral
      3. Time, Place or Manner Restriction 
      4. Serve Important Government Interest
      5. Be Narrowly Tailored to that Government Interest
      6. Leave Open Alternative Channels of Communication 
    2. Permit Fees = No Discretion Permitted
  2. Limited (Designated) Public Forums = Same Standard as Public Forums
  3. Non-Public Forums
    1. Rational Basis Test 
    2. Viewpoint Neutral 
  4. Private Property
    1. CA Exception: Shopping Centers

31

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Commercial Speech)

  1. Unprotected Commercial Speech 
    1. False or Deceptive Speech 
    2. Proposes Unlawful Activity, OR 
    3. Truth Speech Inherently Capable of Deception 
  2. Regulation of Truthful Commercial Speech = Intermediate Scrutiny
  3. Substantially Related to Important Government Purpose 
  4. Directly Advances That Purpose 
  5. Narrowly Tailored To That Interest
  6. In-Person Solicitation for Profit 
    1. Attorneys = State May Prohibit 
    2. Accountants = State May Not Prohibit 

32

33

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Privacy Issues of the Press)

  1. Accurate Publication of Information in Public Record
  2. Illegal Eavesdropping

34

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Symbolic Speech (Expressive Conduct))

  1.  Requirements for Government Regulation
    1. Important Interest Unrelated to Suppression of Message
    2. Impact on Communication No Greater than Necessary 
  2. Constitutionally Protected Symbolic Speech 
    1. Flag Burning 
    2. Cross Burning
  3. Constitutionally Unprotected Symbolic Speech 
    1. Draft Card Burning 
    2. Nude Dancing

35

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Prior Restraint)

  1. License or Permit for Speech
    1. Important Reason for Licensing 
    2. Clear Criteria Leaving No Discretion
    3. Procedural Safeguards
  2. Court Orders = Strict Scrutiny
    1. Procedurally Proper Court Orders
    2. Gag Orders on Press = Unconstitutional

36

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Vagueness & Overbreadth)

  1. Vagueness
  2. Overbreadth
  3. Fighting Words

37

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Unfettered Discretion)

  1. Unbridled Discretion = Unconstitutional & Void on its Face
  2. Regulation Includes Standard

38

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Speech: Campaign Contributions)

  1. Elections for Office 
    1. Contribution Limits = Constitutional
    2. Expenditure Limits = Unconstitutional 
  2. Ballot Initiatives 
    1. Contribution Limits = Unconstitutional 
    2. Expenditure Limits = Unconstitutional 

39

Elements? (3)

(First Amendment: Freedom of Association: Punishment for Group Membership)

  1. Defendant Actively Affiliated With the Group 
  2. With Knowledge of the Group's Illegal Activities 
  3. With Specific Intent to Further Those Illegal Activities 

40

Two Exceptions?

(First Amendment: Freedom of Association: Prohibiting Groups from Discriminating)

  1. Intimate Association, OR
  2. Discrimination is Integral to Purpose of the Group

41

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Religion: Free Exercise Clause)

  1.  Intentional Laws = Strict Scrutiny
  2. Unintentional Neutral Laws of General Applicability Cannot Be Challenged Under Free Exercise Clause

42

Structure?

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(First Amendment: Freedom of Religion: The Establishment Clause = Separation of Church & State)

  1. Test
    1. Secular Purpose
    2. Effect Cannot Advance Nor Inhibit Religion
    3. Must Not Foster Excessive Government Entanglement with Religion
  2. Settled Areas 
    1. Religion in Public School (School Prayer)
    2. Religious Display
    3. Government Assistance to Parochial Schools
    4. Sunday Closing Laws