Remedies Flashcards Preview

Bar Essays > Remedies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Remedies Deck (60):
1

Topics? (2)

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution)

  1. Contracts
  2. Torts

2

Topics? (2)

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Contracts)

  1. Legal Damages
  2. Restitutionary Remedies

3

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
    3. _
      1. _
  2. _
  3. _
    1. _
  4. _
    1. _
      1. _
    2. _
    3. _

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Contracts: Legal Damages)

  1. Compensatory Damages = Expectation Interest
    1. Measure
    2. Requirements
      1. Causation Foreseeability
      2. Certainty
      3. Unavoidable (Duty to Mitigate)
    3. Consequential Damages
      1. Naturally Arose From Breach
  2. Nominal Damages
  3. Punitive Damages
    1. Exception: Characterize Breach as Tort
  4. Liquidated Damages Clause
    1. Requirements
      1. Actual Damages Difficult to Estimate
      2. Reasonable Forecast
    2. Cannot Be a Penalty
    3. Either Or Liquidated Damages Clauses = INVALID

4

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
        1. _
        2. _
    2. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
        1. _
        2. _
    3. _
      1. _
      2. _
        1. _

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Contracts: Restitutionary Remedies)

  1. Quasi-Contract
    1. Unenforceable Contract
      1. Value of Benefit Conferred
      2. Not Limited to Contract Rate
      3. Recovery of Property
        1. Property Unique, OR
        2. Defendant Insolvent
    2. Material Breach
      1. Nonbreaching Party = Value of Benefit Conferred
      2. Not Limited to Contract Rate
      3. Recovery of Property
        1. Property Unique, OR
        2. Defendant Insolvent
    3. Breaching Party
      1. Common Law = NO
      2. Modern Trend = Value of Benefit Conferred - Damages
        1. Limited to Contract Rate

5

Topics?

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Torts)

  1. Legal Remedies
  2. Restitutionary Remedies = Unjust Enrichment

6

Topics? (3)

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Torts: Legal Remedies)

  1. Compensatory Damages
  2. Nominal Damages
  3. Punitive

7

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
      1. _
    3. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
      4. _
    4. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Torts: Legal Remedies: Compensatory Damages)

  1. Requirements
    1. Actual Cuase = But For Test
    2. Proximate Cause = Foreseeability
      1. Exception: Egg-Shell Plaintiff
    3. Certainty
      1. Past Damages
      2. Future Damages
      3. Special Damages = Yes
      4. General Damages = NO
    4. Unavoidable = Duty to Mitigate
  2. Calculation of Compensatory Damages
    1. Lump Sum Payment
    2. Must Discount to Present Value
    3. Inflation Irrelevant

8

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _
      1. _

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Torts: Legal Remedies: Punitive Damages)

  1. Requirements
    1. Attached to Compensatory, Nominal, or Restitutionary Damages
    2. Wanton, Willful, or Malicious Conduct
  2. Constitutional Limitations
    1. Must be relatively proportionate to Actual Damages
      1. Single Digit Ratio

9

Topics? (2)

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Torts: Restitutionary Remedies = Unjust Enrichment: Legal Restitutionary Remedies)

  1. Replevin = Personal Property
  2. Ejectment = Real Property

10

Topics? (2)

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Torts: Restitutionary Remedies = Unjust Enrichment)

  1. Calculation = Reasonable Value Conferred to the Defendant
  2. Legal Restitutionary Remedies

11

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
  3. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _
  4. _

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Torts: Restitutionary Remedies = Unjust Enrichment: Legal Restitutionary Remedies: Replevin = Personal Property)

  1. Elements
    1. Right to Possession
    2. Wrongful Withholding
  2. Timing = Available Before Trial
    1. Plaintiff Must Post Bond
    2. Defenant Can Defeat Right by Posting Redelivery Bond
  3. Damages
    1. Recovery
    2. Compensatory
    3. Restitutionary
  4. Subsequent Bona Fide Purchaser Cuts Off Right of Replevin

12

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _

(Legal Remedies - Damages & Restitution: Torts: Restitutionary Remedies = Unjust Enrichment: Legal Restitutionary Remedies: Ejectment = Real Property)

  1. Elements
    1. Right to Possession
    2. Wrongful Withholding & Possession
  2. Damages
    1. Recovery
    2. Compensatory
    3. Restitutionary

13

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _
  3. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
    2. _
  4. _
    1. _
    2. _
      1. _
    3. _

(Equitable Remedies for Torts: Equitable Restitutionary Remedies)

  1. Requirements
    1. Legal Remedies Inadequate
    2. Defendant Has Wrongfully Acquired Title to Property
  2. Constructive Trust
    1. Use When?
    2. Property Appreciates
    3. Property Solely Traceable
  3. Equitable Lien
    1. Use When?
      1. Property Depreciates
      2. Defendant's Property Improved With Plaintiff's Property
      3. Property Not Solely Traceable
    2. Deficiencyjudgment = Sale Proceeds < FMV
  4. Miscellaneous
    1. Tracing Permitted
    2. Plaintiff > Unsecured Creditor
      1. Exception: Deficiency Judgment
    3. Bona Fide Purchaser > Plaintiff

14

Types? (3)

(Equitable Remedies for Torts: Equitable Restitutionary Remedies: Injunctions)

 

  1. Permanent Injunction
  2. Preliminary Injunction
  3. Temporary Restraining Order (TRO)

15

Topics?

(Equitable Remedies for Torts: Equitable Restitutionary Remedies: Injunctions: Permanent Injunction)

  1. Elements
  2. Defenses

16

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
      4. _
    2. _
    3. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
  3. _
    1. _
    2. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
        1. _
        2. _
  4. _
    1. _
      1. _
        1. _
        2. _
    2. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
      4. _

(Equitable Remedies for Torts: Equitable Restitutionary Remedies: Injunctions: Permanent Injunction: Elements)

  1. Inadequate Legal Remedy
    1. Monetary Damages Inadequate
      1. Too Speculative
      2. Defendant Insolvent
      3. Irreparable Injury, OR
      4. Multiplicity of Litigation
    2. Replevin Unavailable
    3. Ejectment Unavailable
  2. Property Right or Protectable Personal Interest Requirement
    1. Traditional Rule = Property Right
    2. Modern Rule = Protectable Personal Interest
  3. Feasibility of Enforcement
    1. Negative Injunction = Enforcement Feasible
    2. Mandatory Injunction = Enforcement Problematic
      1. Great Taste, Skill or judgment = Unenforceable
      2. Series of Acts Over Period of Time = Unenforceable
      3. Out-of-State Action
        1. Resident Defendant = Enforceable
        2. Non-Resident Defendant = Unenforceable
  4. Balance of Hardship
    1. Minority View = Strict
      1. Exceptions
        1. Nuisance
        2. Trespass to Land
    2. Majority View = More Liberal
      1. Gross Disparity = Monetary Damages
      2. Intentional Conduct = No Balancing
      3. Hardship to Public Also Considered
      4. Denial of Injunction = Monetary Damages

17

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
  3. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _
  4. _
  5. _
    1. _
  6. _
    1. _

(Equitable Remedies for Torts: Equitable Restitutionary Remedies: Injunctions: Permanent Injunction: Defenses)

  1. Laches
    1. Cause of Action Begins to Run When Plaintiff Has Knowledge of Injury
  2. Unclean Hands
    1. Maxims of Equity = One Who Comes Into Equity Must Come with Clean Hands
    2. Related to Subject Matter of Suit
  3. Freedom of Speech
    1. Defamation
    2. False Light
    3. Private Life
  4. Freedom of Association
  5. Sought Against Criminal Act
    1.  Exception: Crime = Tort
  6. Sought Against Prosecution of a Crime = Irreparable Harm
    1.  Exception: Criminal Statute Unconstitutional

18

Structure?

  1. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _
    4. _
    5. _

(Equitable Remedies for Torts: Equitable Restitutionary Remedies: Injunctions: Preliminary Injunction)

  1. Purpose = Preserve the Status Quo
  2. Elements
    1. Substantial Likelihood of Success
    2. Substantial Threat of Irreparable Harm or Injury
    3. Balance of Harms
    4. Bond Required
    5. Notice Required

19

Structure?

  1. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _
    4. _
  3. _
    1. _
    2. _

(Equitable Remedies for Torts: Equitable Restitutionary Remedies: Injunctions: TRO)

  1. Purpose = Preserve the Status Quo
  2. Elements
    1. Imminent & Irreparable Harm
    2. Necessary for Status Quo
    3. Maximum = 14 Days
    4. Bond Requirement
  3. Ex Parte Proceedings = OK
    1. Notice Not Required
    2. Adversarial Proceeding Not Required

20

Who are the parties bound? (3)

(Equitable Remedies for Torts: Equitable Restitutionary Remedies: Injunctions: Parties Bound)

  1. The Defendant 
  2. Privies of the Parties with Notice
  3. 3rd Parties with Notice

21

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _

(Equitable Remedies for Torts: Equitable Restitutionary Remedies: Injunctions: Enforcement of Injunctions)

  1. Civil Contempt = Coercion
    1. Fines
    2. Imprisonment
  2. Criminal Contempt = Punishment
    1. Fines
    2. Imprisonment

22

Topics? (2)

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts)

  1. Rescission
  2. Reformation

23

Topics? (3)

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts: Rescission)

  1. Grounds for Rescission
  2. Defenses
  3. Plaintiff's Election of Remedies

24

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
      1. _
        1. _
        2. _
    2. _
      1. _
      2. _
  2. _
  3. _
  4. _
  5. _
  6. _
  7. _

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts: Rescission: Grounds for Rescission)

  1. Mistake
    1. Unilateral Mistake = NO
      1. Exceptions
        1. Non-Mistaken Party Knows or Should Have Known of Mistake
        2. Modern Exception: Undue Hardship for Mistaken Party
    2. Mutual Mistake = Both Parties are Mistaken
      1. Material Fact = Yes
      2. Collateral or Immaterial Fact = No
  2. Misrepresentation = Yes if Actual Reliance
  3. Undue Influence
  4. Lack of Capacity
  5. Lack of Consideration
  6. Coercion 
  7. IllegaIity 

25

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts: Rescission: Defenses)

  1. Valid Defenses
    1. Laches
    2. Unclean Hands
  2. Invalid Defenses
    1. Negligence of Plaintiff

26

Two scenarios?

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts: Rescission: Plaintiff's Election of Remedies)

  1. Plaintiff Sues for Damages First = RESCISSION NOT ALLOWED
  2. Plaintiff Sues for Rescission First = DAMAGES ALLOWED

27

Topics? (4)

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts: Reformation)

  1. Valid Contract Required
  2. Grounds for Reformation
  3. Valid Defenses to Reformation
  4. Invalid Defenses to Reformation

28

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
      1. _
    2. _
  2. _

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts: Reformation: Grounds for Reformation)

  1. Mistake
    1. Unilateral Mistake = No
      1. Exception: Non-Mistaken Party Knows of Mistake
    2. Mutual Mistake = Yes
  2. Misrepresentation = Yes

29

List? (3)

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts: Reformation: Valid Defenses to Reformation)

  1. Unclean Hands
  2. Laches
  3. Subsequent BFP

30

List? (4)

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts: Reformation: Invalid Defenses to Reformation)

  1. Parol Evidence Rule
  2. Statute of Frauds
  3. Failure to Read
  4. Negligence of Plaintiff

31

Requirements? (6)

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts - Specific Performance)

  1. Valid Contract
  2. Plaintiff's Contractual Conditions Must Be Satisfied
  3. Legal Remedies Inadequate
  4. Mutuality
  5. Enforcement Feasible
  6. No Defenses

32

Requirements? (4)

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts - Specific Performance: Valid Contract)

  1. Offer
  2. Acceptance
  3. Consideration
  4. Certain and Definite Terms

33

Structure?

  1. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _
  3. _
    1. _
  4. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
    2. _
    3. _

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts - Specific Performance: Plaintiff's Contractual Conditions Must Be Satisfied)

  1. Maxims of Equity = One Who Seeks Equity Must Do Equity
  2. How?
    1. Already Performed Under Contract
    2. Ready, Willing & Able to Perform, OR
    3. Performance Excused 
  3. Time Is of the Essence Clause
    1. Maxims of Equity = Equity Abhors Forfeiture
  4. Deficiencies in Performance
    1. Plaintiff = Seller
      1. Minor Defect = Yes
      2. Material Defect = No Unless Cured
    2. Plaintiff = Buyer
    3. Abatement in Contract Price

34

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
      1. _
        1. _
        2. _
        3. _
    2. _
      1. _
  2. _
  3. _
  4. _
    1. _

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts - Specific Performance: Legal Remedies Inadequate)

  1. Item Unique
    1. Personal Property = Generally Not Unique
      1. Exceptions
        1. Very Rare or One of a Kind
        2. Item Has Personal Significance to Buyer
        3. Unique Circumstances at Time of Litigation
    2. Land = Always Unique
      1. Specifc Performance Also Available for Selers
  2. Damages Too Speculative
  3. Defendant Insolvent, OR
  4. Multiplicity of Litigation
    1. Maxims of Equity = Equity Will Take jurisdiction to Avoid a Multiplicity of Suits 

35

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts - Specific Performance: Mutuality)

  1. Security of Performance Test
    1. Simultaneous Performance

36

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
    2. _
    3. _
      1. _
        1. _
        2. _
        3. _
      2. _
  2. _
    1. _
      1. _
    2. _
      1. _
    3. _
      1. _
        1. _
        2. _

(Equitable Remedies for Contracts - Specific Performance: No Defenses)

  1. Equitable Defenses
    1. Unclean Hands
      1. Maxims of Equity = One Who Comes Into Equity Must Come with Clean Hands
      2. Related to Subject Matter of Suit
    2. Laches
    3. Unconscionability
      1. Requirements
        1. Inadequate Consideration
        2. Marked Inequality
        3. Unfair Advantage
      2. Assessed at Time of Formation
  2. Contract Defenses
    1. Mistake
      1. Unilateral Mistake
    2. Misrepresentation
      1. Misrepresentation by Nondisclosure
    3. Statute of Frauds
      1. Exception: Part Performance
        1. Valuable Part Performance
        2. In Reliance of the Contract

37

Topics? (6)

(Sale of Land Contracts)

  1. Equitable Conversion
  2. Compensatory Damages
  3. Restitution
  4. Rescission
  5. Reformation
  6. Specific Performance

38

Structure?

  1. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
  3. _
    1. _
    2. _
  4. _
    1. _
    2. _

(Sale of Land Contracts: Equitable Conversion)

  1. Upon Execution of Contract
  2. Definition
    1. Buyer = Real Property Interest 
    2. Seller = Personal Property Interest
  3. Death After Equitable Conversion
    1. Seller
    2. Buyer
  4. Damages or Destruction After Equitable Conversion
    1. Majority View = Risk on Buyer
    2. Modern View = Risk on Seller 

39

Three requirements?

(Sale of Land Contracts: Specific Performance)

  1. Valid Contract
  2. Plaintiff's Conditions Fulfilled
  3. Inadequate Legal Damages = Land Always Unique

40

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _
    4. _

(Sale of Land Contracts: Specific Performance: Valid Contract)

  1. Statute of Frauds
    1. Exception: Part Performance on Land Sale Contract
      1. Valuable Part Performance
      2. In Reliance of the Contract
  2. Clear and Definite Terms
    1. Parties
    2. Definition of Property
    3. Time for Performance
    4. Purchase Price

41

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
  2. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
    2. _
    3. _

(Sale of Land Contracts: Specific Performance: Plaintiff's Conditions Fulfilled)

  1. Time Is of the Essence Clauses
    1. Maxims of Equity = Equity Abhors Forfeiture
  2. Deficiencies in Performance
    1. Plaintiff = Seller
      1. Minor Defect = Yes
      2. Material Defect = No Unless Cured 
    2. Plaintiff = Buyer
    3. Abatement of Purchase Price

42

Topics? (2)

(Personal Property Ks, Construction Ks, & Personal Service Ks: Personal Property Contract)

  1. Non-UCC
  2. UCC

43

Structure?

  1. _
  2. _
  3. _
  4. _
  5. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _

(Personal Property Ks, Construction Ks, & Personal Service Ks: Personal Property Contract: Non-UCC)

  1. Compensatory Damages 
  2. Restitution
  3. Rescission
  4. Reformation
  5. Specific Performance = Generally No
    1. Exceptions
      1. Very Rare or One of a Kind
      2. Item Has Personal Significance to Buyer
      3. Unique Circumstances at Time of Litigation 

44

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
    2. _
      1. _
      2. _
  2. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
    2. _
      1. _
      2. _

(Personal Property Ks, Construction Ks, & Personal Service Ks: Personal Property Contract: UCC Remedies)

  1. Buyer's Remedies 
    1. Before Acceptance 
      1. Cancel Contract = Cover or Market, OR 
      2. Specific Performance = Unique Goods 
    2. After Acceptance 
      1. Keep Nonconforming Goods & Recover Consequential Damages, OR 
      2. Revoke Contract for Material Uncured Breach = Cover or Market 
  2. Seller's Remedies 
    1. Before Acceptance
      1. Resell & Recover Difference Between Contract Price & Resale Price 
      2. Sue for Contract Price, OR 
      3. Volume Seller = Lost Profits
    2. After Acceptance
      1. ​Sue for Contract Price
      2. Replevin

45

Remedies Available? (3)

(Personal Property Ks, Construction Ks, & Personal Service Ks: Construction Contracts)

  1. Compensatory Damages
  2. Restitution
  3. Specific Performance = Owner Only

46

Structure?

  1. _
  2. _
  3. _
    1. _
    2. _
      1. _
        1. _
        2. _

(Personal Property Ks, Construction Ks, & Personal Service Ks: Personal Service Contracts)

  1. Compensatory Damages
  2. Restitution
  3. Specific Performance
    1. Personal Service Contracts = No 
    2. Valid Non-Compete Covenants = Yes
      1. Valid If
        1. Must Protect Legitimate Interest
        2. Reasonable in Geographic & Durational Scope 

47

Sections? (4)

(Remedies for Specific Torts)

  1. Real Property
  2. Personal Property
  3. Personal Injuries
  4. Fraud

48

Topics?

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Real Property)

  1. Trespass
  2. Encroachments
  3. Destruction or Injury
  4. Destruction or Interference with Easements
  5. Waste
  6. Nuisances

49

Remedies? (3)

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Real Property: Trespass)

 

  1. Nominal Damages
  2. Restitutionary Damages
  3. Injunctive Relief

50

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _
      1. _
      2. _
  3. _

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Real Property: Encroachments)

  1. Compensatory Damages
    1. Continuing Trespass
    2. Permanent Trespass
  2. Injunctive Relief
    1. Balance of Hardships
      1. Encroachment Inadvertent = YES
      2. Encroachment Willful = NO
  3. No Restitutionary Remedies 

51

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
      1. _
    2. _
  2. _

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Real Property: Destruction or Injury)

  1. Compensatory Damages
    1. Injury
      1. Capped at Diminution
    2. Destruction
  2. Injunctive Relief

52

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. ​_

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Real Property: Destruction or Interference with Easements)

  1. Compensatory Damages
    1. Destruction
    2. Interference
  2. Injunctive Relief = Legal Remedy Inadequate

53

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Real Property: Waste)

  1. Voluntary Waste
    1. Compensatory Damages
    2. Injunctive Relief
  2. Permissive Waste
    1. Compensatory Damages
    2. Injunctive Relief Generally Not Available

54

Remedies? (4)

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Real Property: Nuisances)

  1. Compensatory Damages
  2. Injunctive Relief
  3. No Restitutionary Remedies
  4. Coming to the Nuisance ≠ Defense

55

Types? (3)

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Personal Property)

  1. Destruction
  2. Injury
  3. Dispossession

56

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Personal Property: Destruction)

  1. Compensatory Damages
    1. Exception: Income Producing Property = Lost Profit

 

57

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Personal Property: Injury)

  1. Compensatory Damages
    1. Cost of Repair
    2. Diminution in Value

58

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _
    4. _
    5. _
  3. _
    1. _

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Personal Property: Dispossession)

  1. Compensatory Damages
    1. Conversion
    2. Minor Dispossession
  2. Restitutionary Damages
    1. Self-Help
    2. Replevin
    3. Quasi-Contract
    4. Constructive Trust
    5. Equitable Lien
  3. Equitable Remedies
    1. Injunctive Relief

59

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
    3. _
      1. _
      2. _
      3. _
  2. _
  3. _

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Personal Injuries)

  1. Compensatory Damages
    1. Special Damages = Certainty Requirement
    2. General Damages = No Certainty Requirement
    3. General Damages = No Certainty Requirement
      1. Lump Sum Payment
      2. Must Discount to Present Value
      3. Inflation Irrelevant
  2. No Restitutionary Remedies
  3. Injunction - rarely awarded

60

Structure?

  1. _
    1. _
    2. _
  2. _
    1. _
    2. _

(Remedies for Specific Torts: Fraud)

  1. Damages = Must Prove Actual Injury
    1. Consequential Damages
    2. Punitive Damages = Showing of Malice Required
  2. Restitution
    1. Constructive Trusts
    2. Equitable Liens