Civil Rights campaign in the 1960s Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Civil Rights campaign in the 1960s Deck (15):

What was the SNCC and when was it set up?

Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee 1960


What was CORE and who formed it?

Congress of Racial Equality (James Farmer- originally based on ideal of non-violence).


What were 'sit ins' and what was the aim?

- African American students would sit in 'white only' eating areas and would refuse to leave
- aimed to end segregation in restaurants in Greensboro, North Carolina


Where and when did the 'sit ins' start?

Woolworths (lunch counter) a Greensboro, North Carolina, 1960


What evidence is there that this first 'sit in' was well supported?

- 1st day of sit in 4 African Americans involved, 2nd day 23 involved, 3rd day 66 involved, within a week 400 African Americans and whites involved


What evidence is there that 'sit ins' were successful?

- support from SNCC helped them spread tactic to other cities
- by end of 1960, lunch counters in 126 cities had been desegregated
- Feb 1960, 500 students organised sit ins in Nashville, Tennessee in restaurants, libraries and churches (their college expelled them but backed down when 400 teachers threatened to resign), by May the town was desegregated.


Who organised the 'Freedom Rides' of 1961?

CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)


What were the 'Freedom Rides'?

A group of 13 students (7 African American and 6 white) planned to go in a bus journey from Washington DC to the Deep South - many states were not obeying the rules to desegregate interstate buses, bus terminals and waiting rooms.


What happened to the 'Freedom Riders'?

- they faced violence and intimidation
- members of the KKK got on the bus in Birmingham, Alabama and beat some of them up
- They were arrested in Birmingham, Alabama and taken 150 miles away
- KKK attacked some riders again on their way back to Montgomery, some were seriously hurt
-200 riders were arrested and spent 40 days in jail


Were the 'Freedom Rides' successful?

- September 1961, a law was passed to stop segregation on interstate buses
- President J.F. Kennedy put pressure on the Governor of Alabama (sign that African Americans and white supporters would no longer be intimidated)


in what year did the march on Washington take place?

1963 (August)


How many people marched on Washington?

Over 200,000 African Americans and 50,000 white people


What was the aim of the March on Washington?

Put pressure on President Kennedy to pass the civil rights bill (particularly about votes, unemployment and poverty)


Why was this March on Washington so memorable?

- Martin Luther King "I have a dream speech" about equality inspired the public
- no trouble at the march, not even litter
- JFK met the leaders of the freedom marches afterwards


What were the 'Freedom Marches'?

1962-3, marches and demonstrations across over 100 cities to march for 'jobs and freedom (vote)'. Most important was the march on Washington.