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Flashcards in Class 4 Deck (33):
1

crop yields of most species -- with fertilization

increase

2

its absence prevents a plant from completing its life cycle

essential element

3

7 macronutrients

N, K, Ca, Mg, P, S, Si

4

9 micronutrients

Cl, Fe, B, Na, Ni, Mn, Mo,Cu, Zn

5

roles of nutrients include components of amino acids, nucleic acids and/or chlorophyll

P, N, S, Mg

6

roles of nutrients include components of cell walls

Si, B

7

Roles of nutrients include ions for osmotic balancing

Cl, K, Na

8

roles of nutrients include enzyme cofactors

Ca, Mn

9

roles of nutrients include components of pigments for redox reactions

Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Zn

10

essential nutrients can be provided in -- such as Knop's or Hoagland solution

nutrient solutions

11

nutrient deficiencies: occur at low nutrient concentrations in --, reflected by low concentration in tissues and low plant relative growth rates

soil

12

when -- are abundant, further increases in soil supply may not have an impact on relative growth rate

nutrients

13

at too-high, -- levels, additional nutrients may slow relative growth (soil becomes salty, plant may be droughted or metabolism may be disturbed)

toxic

14

T/F: nutrient deficiency may include symptoms specific to the nutrient.

true

15

common deficiencies may appear as yellowing of leaves, --

chlorosis

16

For -- nutrients (N, P, K, and Mg) chlorosis appears especially in old leaves

mobile

17

For immobile nutrients such as -- and -- chlorosis appears in young leaves

Ca and S

18

Deficiency may also induce production of -- and a purple color in leaves (N, P)

anthocyanin

19

roots have extensive --

surface area

20

rye plant after 16 weeks has more than 500 km of total root length and -- of surface area

500 m^2

21

roots can also go very deep, plants of semi-desert rooting to --

more than 50 m

22

roots consist of -- and laterals

taproot

23

-- at the tip protects the meristem underneath

root cap

24

root cap secretes -- a lubricant

mucigel

25

3 zones

meristematic zone at tip
elongation zone
maturation zone

26

root hairs appear in the --zone

maturation

27

nutrients flow to the root in the soil water moving by bulk flow, but also, nutrients -- towards the root

diffuse

28

right adjacent to the root are -- zones as nutrients mobile in the soil have been removed

depletion

29

to continually absorb these mobile nutrients (N)root must continue -- and also to continually absorb soil-immobile nutrients (P)

growing

30

symbiosis between roots and fungi

mycorrhiza

31

the mycelium forms a sheath around the roots and penetrates between cortical cells

ectomycorrhizae

32

the hyphae penetrate into cells of the cortex (but not into the protoplasts)

arbuscular mycorrhizae

33

because hyphae are so much narrow and profuse than roots, it dramatically increases absorption area and especially help with the acquisition of --

P