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Flashcards in Class 1 Deck (95):
1

A plant is -- branch off the tree of life

one

2

plants have typical characters at the cell level: cellulose cell walls, -- and chloroplasts

vacuole

3

-- species of plants

250k

4

T/F: chloroplasts evolved way before plants

true

5

Goethe's -- scientist sells soul to devil to get fame

Italian Journey

6

Classic "unified plant" idea: Goethe's 'Ur-plant' all plants are variations on a single unified theme, and that each carries within it the -- for huge variation

potential

7

Modern "unified plant" idea: emphasis in much -- on 'model' plants, with genomes determined, functionally elucidated, modified

physiology

8

Arabidopsis (thale cress) has a small genome, sequenced in 2000, -- week life cycle, easy to propagate

6

9

used in classic genetic and molecular biology experiments (McClintock); important fast-growing crop

Zea mays (corn, maize)

10

model especially for flower developmental genetics

Antirrhinum (snapdragon)

11

other model plant species include brassica (cabbage, canola), --, tobacco, and rice

tomato

12

cell wall is rigid, made of cellulose, with --

proteins

13

primary cell walls are --, characteristic of young, growing cells

thick

14

model plants should be able to -- fast (easily propagated)

grow

15

plants have typical characters at the whole-plant level:

roots, leaves

16

secondary cell walls have deposited of -- so are up to several um thick and stronger

lignin

17

model plants should have -- fecundity

high

18

model plants should be -- to grow

cheap

19

model plants should be easy to -- for genetic experiments

manipulate

20

If a model plant's genome was --, it would be easier to discover, clone, and transfer genes

sequenced

21

Other important aspects of model plants are that it should be -- of most plants in terms of genetics and have variable phenotypes

representative

22

Does arabidopsis have phenotypic plasticity?

no

23

typical body = stem, -- and root

leaf

24

softer more flexible cell wall

primary wall

25

-- also bridges the cells

endoplasmic reticulum

26

vacuole is the -- compartment

storage

27

vacuole can press up against cell membrane/wall

hydrostatic pressure

28

outside the protoplasts, the cell walls also form a continuous space, a potential pathway

apoplast

29

all of the membranes within the cell are --

interconnected

30

vacuole contains water, organic and inorganic ions, ---, enzymes, and metabolites

sugars

31

vacuole also serves to degrade cells during --

senescence

32

number of mitochondria depends on -- of the cell

metabolic activity

33

T/F: there are many mitochondria in the guard cells

true

34

mitochondria is the site of --

respiration

35

mitochondria are -- long

3 um

36

chloroplasts are typically -- per cell

20-40

37

chloroplasts are -- long

5-8 um

38

site of photosynthesis

chloroplasts

39

peroxisomes spherical organelles that function to -- compounds and also to break down peroxide, a by product of cellular reactions

oxidize

40

tubular extensions of plasma membrane 40-50 nm in diameter that traverse the cell wall and connect two cells

plasmodesmata

41

root cap + root apical meristem

root apex

42

compounds may be transported between cells, but typically only up to 2 nm in diameter, through the -- formed by the plasma membrane and ER in the cavity

microchannels

43

because the cytoplasm of most cells is thus continuous, we may conceive of all the living tissue in the plant as connected in one transport pathway

symplast

44

outside the protoplasts, the cell walls also form a continuous space, a potential pathway

apoplast

45

H+ -ATPase involved in ATP synthesis is found on the mitochondria's --

inner membrane

46

T/F: both mitochondria and chloroplasts make ATP in plants

true

47

stack of thylakoids

granum

48

where light reactions occur in chloroplasts

thylakoid membrane

49

super apoplast

xylem

50

super symplast

phloem

51

doesn't need to cross cell membrane so water is best conducted by

apoplast

52

large biomolecules are able to move in a controlled manner do it is best conducted by

symplast

53

water moves from cell to cell via spaces in the -- until it reaches the endodermis

cell wall

54

water moves from cell to cell in the cytoplasm via the plasma membranes and --

plasmodesmata

55

whole-plant architecture; growth confined to --

meristems

56

leaf primordia + shoot apical meristem

shoot apex

57

root cap + root apical meristem

root apex

58

epidermis, cuticle, guard cells, and root hairs

dermal tissue

59

waxy layer that prevents water from evaporating and desiccating leaf

cuticle

60

parenchyma and -- are present in phloem

fibers

61

xylem and phloem are -- tissues

vascular

62

thin-walled, metabolically active cells, functional in metabolism and photosynthesis

parenchyma

63

narrow, elongated cells with thick primary walls, provide structural support to the growing plant body

collenchyma

64

collenchyma can -- as organs grow

stretch

65

usually found in stem periphery and petioles

collenchyma

66

consists of two types of cells, sclereids and fibers

sclerenchyma

67

both cell types of sclerenchyma have thick secondary walls and are frequently -- at maturity

dead

68

T/F: sclereids occur in a variety of shapes, ranging from roughly spherical to branched, and are widely distributed throughout the plant

true

69

fibers are narrow, elongated and commonly associated with -- tissues

vascular

70

-- provides mechanical support particularly to non-elongating parts of the plant

sclerenchyma

71

xylem functions in conduction of water and --

nutrients

72

-- and sclerenchyma are also present in xylem

parenchyma

73

phloem functions in conduction of sugars and --

signal molecules

74

conducting tissue of phloem is composed of -- (gymnosperms)

sieve cells

75

parenchyma and -- are present in phloem

fibers

76

-- have no chloroplasts

xylem

77

non photosynthetic plants include -- and saprophytic plants

parasitic

78

gymnosperms -- species

700

79

angiosperms -- species

250,000

80

Wolffia spp

duckweed

81

plants can thrive from different percentage of daylight -- habitats

irradiance

82

plants exist on chronically dry soil, and on -- (or submerged in water)

ever-wet soil

83

plants exist where temp reach

less than negative 40 and greater than 40 degrees C

84

different growth forms: woody, single stem

trees

85

different growth forms: woody, multiple stems, shorter

shrubs

86

different growth forms: non-woody

herbs

87

variation in habitat: clonal populations, epiphytes, and --

carnivorous plants

88

diversity in biochemical and metabolism: C3, C4, and -- photosynthesis

CAM

89

huge range in flower size

aroids

90

live with no water

nolana

91

spends life in water

taxodium

92

full daylight

agave

93

adapted to less than 40 degrees C

birch tree

94

adapted to > 40 degrees C

Joshua tree

95

conducting tissue of phloem is composed of -- (angiosperms)

sieve tubes