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Flashcards in Respiration Deck (79):
1

Respiration releases the energy stored in carbon compounds for cellular use, and generates -- for biosynthesis

carbon precursors

2

Glycolysis - oxidize sugars involves reactions carried out by soluble enzymes in the --

cytosol and in the plastid

3

Sucrose is split into --

glucose and fructose and UDP-glucose

4

glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate --> triose phosphates called

glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate

5

Triose phosphates are oxidized to

phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) → pyruvate

6

additional end product to pyruvate

malate

7

anaerobic respiration occurs when oxygen is unavailable such as in --

roots in flooded soils

8

fermentation occurs in

cytosol

9

fermentation -- pyruvate to convert NADH to NAD+

reduce

10

fermentation results in -- ATP per sucrose rather than 60 if citric acid cycle

4

11

Alternative to glycolysis for oxidizing sugars

pentose phosphate pathway

12

pentose phosphate pathway contributes more when plant cells become --

fully differentiated

13

PPP: Contributes more when plant cells become --

fully differentiated

14

6-carbon glucose-6-phosphate is oxidized to the 5-carbon ribulose-5-phosphate, releasing -- and generating --

releasing CO2 and generating NADPH

15

Ribulose-5-phosphate is converted into --

3- to 7- carbon sugars

16

Inhibited by the accumulation of its products,

fructose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

17

fructose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate are formed in chloroplast as part of the -- cycle to produce ribulose

Calvin

18

Reactions of citric acid cycle are carried out by enzymes in --

matrix of mitochondria

19

= inner mitochondrial membrane

succinate dehydrogenase

20

citric acid cycle: Pyruvate is oxidized completely to CO2 → -- = reducing power

NADH and FADH2

21

Pyruvate is decarboxylated by -- → CO2, NADH and acetyl-CoA

pyruvate dehydrogenase

22

after pyruvate is decarboxylated, -- occur (with additional CO2 release) and NADH, ATP, and FADH2 are generated

oxidative decarboxylation

23

where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?

inner mitochondrial membrane

24

-- remove H+, pumping these into the intermembrane space,

NADH dehydrogenases

25

NADH dehydrogenases move electrons to --, a small lipid-soluble electron and proton carrier

ubiquinone

26

succinate dehydrogenase from the citric acid cycle also transfers electrons to the --

ubiquinone pool

27

Electrons are then transferred to the cytochrome bc1 complex and to --

cytochrome oxidase

28

chemiosmotic gradient of H+ in the intermembrane space versus the matrix drives the generation of ATP from ADP by the --

F0F1-ATP synthase,

29

F0F1-ATP synthase, which is attached to the -- side of the inner membrane

matrix

30

Respiration -- with flooding of roots

decreases

31

ducts in the shoot conducting air to the root

aerenchyma

32

root outgrowths that protrude out of the water

pneumatophores

33

Respiration -- substantially with temperature

increases

34

during respiration, free energy is released and transiently stored in -- that can readily be utilized for the maintenance and development of the plant

ATP

35

in functioning plant cell, -- carbon is mainly derived from sucrose, trios phosphates and other sugars, lipids, organic acid and sometimes protein

reduced

36

to prevent incineration of cellular structure by a large release of heat, the cell mobilizes the free energy in sucrose in --

step-by-step reactions

37

T/F: not all the carbon that enters the respiratory pathways end up as CO2

true

38

many intermediates are the -- for pathways that synthesize nitrogenous compounds, nucleotides, lipids and others

starting points

39

When oxygen is unavailable, -- is the main source of energy

glycolysis

40

but glycolysis can't continue if -- is not regenerated

NAD+

41

control of glycolysis is at the level of -- and PEP turnover

fructose-6-phosphate phosphorylation

42

PEP inhibits -- the enzyme responsible for the fructose-6-phosphate phosphorylation

phosphofructokinase

43

glycolysis self-regulates independently of citric acid cycle through a -- control

bottom-up

44

glycolysis is more dominant than pentose phosphate pathways accounting for -- of total carbon flux

80-95%

45

PPP is regulated by the balance of -- which impact on the first steps

NADP+ to NADPH

46

the breakdown of sucrose to pyruvate releases -- of the energy in sucrose; the remaining energy is stored in the pyruvate

less than 25%

47

mitochondria are spherical or rodlike and range from 0.5 to 1 micro meter in diameter and up to -- in length

3 micro meter

48

plant cells typically have -- mitochondria than animal cells

fewer

49

inner membrane contain more than 50% of goal mitochondrial --

protein

50

aqueous phase within inner membrane

matrix

51

most ions and charged molecules can diffuse past the -- membrane

outer

52

T/F: mitochondria can carry out protein synthesis

true

53

mitochondria proliferate through division o=by -- of preexisting mitochondria

fission

54

electrochemical proton gradient also plays a role in the movement of -- of the citric acid cycle and -- out of the mitochondria

organic acids; ATP

55

-- in the inter membrane space allows ATP 4- to be exchanged for ADP 3- via the ADP/ATP transporter

high positive charge

56

-- are transported in and out of the matrix to the intermembrane space in association with transport of OH- and Pi 2- to the inter membrane space, exchanged with H+ and Pi-

carbon compounds

57

aerobic respiration yields -- ATP per sucrose

60

58

aerobic respiration captures about -- of the free energy available from the complete oxidation not sucrose

52%

59

key regulators of glycolysis in cytosol, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria

ADP and Pi

60

a buildup of ADP and Pi -- respiration

stimulates

61

plant respiration rates are -- on a mass basis than animal tissues because plants have large central vacuole, a bulky cell wall which do not contain mitochondria and thus dilute respiration rate

lower

62

all tissues respire

24 hrs a day

63

--of daily gain in photosynthetic carbon can be lost to respiration

30-60%

64

older trees have -- respiration relative to photosynthesis as photosynthetic to non-photsynthetic tissue decreases

higher

65

T/F: tissues respire at different rates

true

66

greater overall metabolic activity, -- respiration rate

higher

67

dev buds tend to have -- respiration

higher

68

respiration often declines as tissues and whole plant ages, except --

climerateric

69

high respiration can increase temp; important for flowers that attract pollinators with heat or smell or for shoots that --

melt their way through snow

70

respiration will -- with O2 availability

increase

71

lower night-time temp are beneficial for plant growth since at night --

only respiration no photosynthesis

72

higher night-time temp -- overall carbon balance (more respiration and thus less net photosynthesis over the day and night)

reduce

73

warmer night time temp -- tropical tree growth and can halt the growth of mosses which conduct little daily photosynthesis

slow

74

increased respiration due to -- may carry the threat of CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere due to increased plant respiration

global warming

75

in some tree seedlings, high night time temp may -- growth possibly by increasing cell division

increase

76

recent experimental warming work showed that as plants -- to warmer temp during growth, respiration returns to its typical level

acclimate

77

respiration response of ecosystems to global warming -- growth

slow

78

respiration response of ecosystems to global warming mortality and -- CO2 emissions

higher

79

respiration response of ecosystems to global warming depends on how long the plants have to acclimate and how -- temp rise

quickly