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Flashcards in Respiration Deck (79)
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1

Respiration releases the energy stored in carbon compounds for cellular use, and generates -- for biosynthesis

carbon precursors

2

Glycolysis - oxidize sugars involves reactions carried out by soluble enzymes in the --

cytosol and in the plastid

3

Sucrose is split into --

glucose and fructose and UDP-glucose

4

glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate --> triose phosphates called

glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate

5

Triose phosphates are oxidized to

phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) → pyruvate

6

additional end product to pyruvate

malate

7

anaerobic respiration occurs when oxygen is unavailable such as in --

roots in flooded soils

8

fermentation occurs in

cytosol

9

fermentation -- pyruvate to convert NADH to NAD+

reduce

10

fermentation results in -- ATP per sucrose rather than 60 if citric acid cycle

4

11

Alternative to glycolysis for oxidizing sugars

pentose phosphate pathway

12

pentose phosphate pathway contributes more when plant cells become --

fully differentiated

13

PPP: Contributes more when plant cells become --

fully differentiated

14

6-carbon glucose-6-phosphate is oxidized to the 5-carbon ribulose-5-phosphate, releasing -- and generating --

releasing CO2 and generating NADPH

15

Ribulose-5-phosphate is converted into --

3- to 7- carbon sugars

16

Inhibited by the accumulation of its products,

fructose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

17

fructose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate are formed in chloroplast as part of the -- cycle to produce ribulose

Calvin

18

Reactions of citric acid cycle are carried out by enzymes in --

matrix of mitochondria

19

= inner mitochondrial membrane

succinate dehydrogenase

20

citric acid cycle: Pyruvate is oxidized completely to CO2 → -- = reducing power

NADH and FADH2

21

Pyruvate is decarboxylated by -- → CO2, NADH and acetyl-CoA

pyruvate dehydrogenase

22

after pyruvate is decarboxylated, -- occur (with additional CO2 release) and NADH, ATP, and FADH2 are generated

oxidative decarboxylation

23

where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?

inner mitochondrial membrane

24

-- remove H+, pumping these into the intermembrane space,

NADH dehydrogenases

25

NADH dehydrogenases move electrons to --, a small lipid-soluble electron and proton carrier

ubiquinone

26

succinate dehydrogenase from the citric acid cycle also transfers electrons to the --

ubiquinone pool

27

Electrons are then transferred to the cytochrome bc1 complex and to --

cytochrome oxidase

28

chemiosmotic gradient of H+ in the intermembrane space versus the matrix drives the generation of ATP from ADP by the --

F0F1-ATP synthase,

29

F0F1-ATP synthase, which is attached to the -- side of the inner membrane

matrix

30

Respiration -- with flooding of roots

decreases