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Flashcards in Class notes Deck (97):
1

Parts of CNS

brain and spinal cord.

2

Parts of peripheral nervous system

everything other than brain and spinal cord

3

What is behavior

anything you do, think, feel, want

4

What are some kinds of brain imaging

fMRI, PET, MRI, DTI

5

What is DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging. shows neural tracts in brain.

6

What is the McGurk effect

Effect of interaction between vision and hearing on speech perception

7

Binding problem

How we put all information we perceive back into a comprehensive whole. Eg vision really composed of movement, color, face recognition, shapes.

8

Body image

something constructed in the mind; evidenced by phantom limbs

9

visual input paths

how path: main visual areas to parietal lobes. spatial navigation.
what path: main visual areas to temporal lobes. what am I looking at and what is the significance.

10

Capgras delusion

Believe close family and friends replaced by imposter because no emotional response to faces.

11

seizures

can interfere with how temporal lobes interpret emotional response, so everything becomes deeply moving

12

Franz Joseph Gall

phrenologist; localist but a bit like palm reading

13

Pierre Flourens

equipotentiation. Studied birds to see if could find part of brain responsible for flight, but birds always able to fly.

14

Paul Broca

discovered left side frontal lobe responsible for speech production. Damage to broca's area as adult - remain aphasic; damage as child - do not remain aphasic.

15

Wernicke's area

area on temporal lobe; related to understanding speech

16

Korbinian Broadmann

studied brain and identified 52 area

17

Camillio Golgi

invented stain to study neruons

18

Santiago Ramon y Cajal

determined that neurons are separate and don't touch at synapses

19

Reductionism

theory that subjective experience can be reduced to smaller and smaller parts of brain

20

Whollism

theory that subjective experience is result of whole brain

21

Localisation

different parts of brain responsible for different experiences. evidence: brain damage to certain parts of brain results in similar symptoms across patients.

22

Equipotentiation

any part of brain can do anything. evidence: neuroplasticity, shown by children with brain damage who grow up ok, or by amputees who experience sensations from missing limbs in other parts of body, like cheek

23

Neurons

brain cells: consists of soma, dendrites, and axons; can't reproduce. 100 billion of them. can be as long as 3 feet. can only send/receive certain types of neurotransmitters. actively do something or actively inhibit.

24

Dendrites

where info comes into a neuron. can grow/lose dendrites. info can be: chemical signal from another cell or info from external world (photon of light) or external chemical

25

Synapse

space between neurons; between pre- and post-synaptic neurons

26

Axon

Where info goes out of a neuron. An axon also known as a nerve fibre, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands. In certain sensory neurons (pseudounipolar neurons), such as those for touch and warmth, the electrical impulse travels along an axon from the periphery to the cell body, and from the cell body to the spinal cord along another branch of the same axon.

27

Myelin

fatty substance insulating axons; speeds transmission of electrical impulses

28

Nodes of Ranvier

gaps in myelin sheath where saltatory conduction happens

29

Pre-synaptic terminal

bulb at end of axon (axon terminal) containing vessicles that contain neurotransmitters

30

chemical vs electrical

between neurons: chemical transmission. within neurons: electrical.

31

methods of neuronal classification

what they do: sensory, motor, interneuron
what is happening at a given time: pre or post synaptic
number of processes that come out of a soma: unipolar, bipolar, pseudounipolar, multipolar

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unipolar neuron

one process coming out of soma; most invertebrate neurons. any area of axon can be receptive surface or can send info

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bipolar neuron

two processes coming out of soma; usually sensory neuron. one axon, one dendrite

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pseudounipolar

two axons; tend to be sensory. one branch of axon to spinal cord and one branch to PNS.

35

multipolar neurons

purkinje cells in cerebellum with lots of dendrites

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afferent axons

send info to CNS. all sensory neurons are afferent.

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efferent axons

send info out of CNS. all motor neurons are efferent.

38

intrinsic neurons

within a system. all interneurons are intrinsic.

39

glia

"glue" brain cells; can reproduce. most numerous. clean up dead neurons. help communication between neurons.

40

micro glia

radial glia: orient neurons in development

41

macro glia

schwann cells: make up myelin in PNS.
astrocytes: make up blood-brain barrier. make contact with capillaries in brain. deactivate neurotransmitters and send to blood stream.
oligodendricites: make up myelin in CNS.

42

Parkinsons

dopamine decreases due to death of dopa-producing cells in substantia nigra. Can't take extra dopamine because doesn't cross blood-brain barrier, but L-dopa helps.

43

MS

myelin degenerates; affects CNS.

44

propogation of action potential

charge goes from node to node via saltatory conduction

45

refractory period

period in which a neuron is unlikely to fire again after firing an action potential. absolute: sodium channels closed and no chance of action potential. relative: unlikely but possible action potential.

46

novacaine

stops sodium channels from working so neurons won't fire.

47

synesthesia

sensory confusion.
projectors: see things in front of them, like number lines. associators: link 2 senses, like colors and letters.
higher synesthetes: concept causes (eg quantity)
lower synesthetes: shape (eg letter shape) causes.

48

color vision

as we age, we see things as more yellow. causes blue haired ladies.

49

vessicles

contain neurotransmitters, probably always the same type of NTs in a vessicle. Calcium causes vessicles to migrate to end of membrane and causes NTs to transmit across synapses.

50

EPSP

excitatory post-synaptic potentials
sodium makes neuron more likely to fire.

51

IPSP

inhibitory post-synaptic potentials

52

Otto Lowei

experimented with frog hearts to determine that neurons communicate via chemicals

53

receptors

proteins that work like lock and key with NTs

54

re-uptake

process whereby NTs that come off of post-synaptic receptor and moves back to pre-synaptic neuron; protein molecule sweeps up the NTs and puts back.
most common way to deactivate NT.

55

neurotransmitter

bigger molecules than ions. probably neutral charge.
can produce more NTs via food.
more distance travelled means more neurons that can be activated if they have the right receptors.

56

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. eg zoloft, prozac. block serotonin reuptake so serotonin binds again. takes 2-4 weeks to work; maybe because of up/down regulation that changes # of receptors.

57

enzymatic degredation

enzyme breaks down NT so it goes into bloodstream.

58

MAO

Monoamine oxidase. vital role MAOs play in the inactivation of neurotransmitters. responsible for depression, anxiety, and other disorders.

59

MAOI

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor. inhibits destruction of monoamine oxidase (neuropenepherine).

60

acetylcholine

AcH. mood, memory, movement, sleep
chemical precursor: choline (from milk)
allows muscles to move.

61

dopamine

Da. addiction, infatuation, hallucination, mood.
chemical precursor: L-dopa

62

norepinephrine

Ne. alertness, orienting, arousal, sleep.

63

serotonin

5-HT. Depression, mood, sleep, aggression.
chemical precursor: tryptophan.

64

histamine

H. immune response related. keeps you awake.

65

epinephrine

Ep. adrenaline. fight or flight.

66

GABA

gamma-aminobutyric acid. chief inhibitory NT in CNS. reduces excitability of neurons. responsible for muscle tone.
fast acting IR inhibitory NT. allows chloride in; makes cell hyperpolarized.

67

glutamate

most important and common. NT for brain function. most excitatory neurons react to glutamate.
fast acting ionotropic excitatory nt. allows sodium to enter; makes more likely to fire.

68

nicotine

crosses blood brain barrier. binds with nicotinic receptors and tricks brain into thinking acetlycholine has binded.

69

down regulation

brain gets rid of some receptors because it thinks it doesn't need them because so much AcH floating around; causes tolerance

70

sagital plane

parallel with nose to neck plane. sagital slice is where can see cerebellum bulge at bottom right.

71

coronal plane

parallel with ear to ear plane. coronal slice is like loaf of bread with muffin top.

72

horizontal plane

self-explanatory. like slice off top of head.

73

ventral

face side. for brain stem and spinal cord. otherwise, belly side. for brain, aka inferior/internal.

74

dorsal

back side. for brain stem and spinal cord. for brain, outer layer/superior.

75

rostral - anterior

rostral = toward nose on horiz plane

76

lateral

toward sides

77

medial

toward middle.

78

ipsilateral

same side

79

contralateral

opposite side

80

nuclei

clump of somas, eg thalamus

81

projections or tract

bundle of axons in CNS

82

nerves

bundles of axons in periphery. take in messages for senses.

83

ganglia

clumps of neurons in periphery

84

Somatic NS

sensory and motor neurons. responsible for muscle and limb position. takes info from periphery below neck and sendds info for movement to lims and trunk. also called voluntary NS, but includes reflexes that aren't voluntary.

85

Automatic NS

internal systems, eg guts, glands, smooth muscles like heart.
enteric division: guts pancreas gallbladder (sometimes considered separate from ANS)
sympathetic division: fight or flight
parasympathetic: rest and digest; feed and breed; actively inhibits sympathetic. responsible for nasal congestion, so cold medicine causes sympathetic symptoms by changing acetylcholine.

86

PNS

somatic and autonomic NS

87

agonists

mimic or increase effect of NT.
can block reuptake or stop enzymatic degradation
deactivates NT in synapse
SSRIs
blocks reuptake of seratonin
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
increases effects of serotonin
can bind to receptors and activate them
nicotine
opioids
trick brain into thinking it has what it needs
can alter NT such that the NT is more effective

88

antagonists

block effects of NT. block receptors.

89

ventricles

areas of brain where fluid flows

90

microdialysis

suck out NTs from particular area to try to see what goes on in that area

91

lesions

damage to area of brain.
can cause lesion to animal brain to see effect.

92

ablation

removal of brain area
pierre fiorenz
epileptics

93

nasal cycle

alternating sides of nostril responsible for breathing.
when left side is more active: better verbal
when right side is more active: better spatial

94

Wilder Penfield

univ of montreal
surgeon treated epileptics and brain tumors
stimulated parts of their brains to see what happened
responsible for homunculus
people experienced memories they hadn't experienced for a long time
video

95

trephination

drill hole in skull to let out evil spirits

96

Wada testing

a barbiturate (which is usually sodium amobarbital) is introduced into one of the internal carotid arteries via a cannula or intra-arterial catheter from the femoral artery. The drug is injected into one hemisphere at a time. The effect is to shut down any language and/or memory function in that hemisphere in order to evaluate the other hemisphere ("half of the brain"). Then the patient is engaged in a series of language and memory related tests. The memory is evaluated by showing a series of items or pictures to the patient so that within a few minutes as soon as the effect of the medication is dissipated, the ability to recall can be tested.

97

FNIRS

functional near infrared spectrography
uses infrared light to measure oxygenation in brain
mostly used pre frontally because no hair
parts of brain more active have more oxygen