Flashcards in Class notes Deck (97):
Parts of CNS
brain and spinal cord.
Parts of peripheral nervous system
everything other than brain and spinal cord
What is behavior
anything you do, think, feel, want
What are some kinds of brain imaging
fMRI, PET, MRI, DTI
What is DTI
Diffusion tensor imaging. shows neural tracts in brain.
What is the McGurk effect
Effect of interaction between vision and hearing on speech perception
How we put all information we perceive back into a comprehensive whole. Eg vision really composed of movement, color, face recognition, shapes.
something constructed in the mind; evidenced by phantom limbs
visual input paths
how path: main visual areas to parietal lobes. spatial navigation.
what path: main visual areas to temporal lobes. what am I looking at and what is the significance.
Believe close family and friends replaced by imposter because no emotional response to faces.
can interfere with how temporal lobes interpret emotional response, so everything becomes deeply moving
Franz Joseph Gall
phrenologist; localist but a bit like palm reading
equipotentiation. Studied birds to see if could find part of brain responsible for flight, but birds always able to fly.
discovered left side frontal lobe responsible for speech production. Damage to broca's area as adult - remain aphasic; damage as child - do not remain aphasic.
area on temporal lobe; related to understanding speech
studied brain and identified 52 area
invented stain to study neruons
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
determined that neurons are separate and don't touch at synapses
theory that subjective experience can be reduced to smaller and smaller parts of brain
theory that subjective experience is result of whole brain
different parts of brain responsible for different experiences. evidence: brain damage to certain parts of brain results in similar symptoms across patients.
any part of brain can do anything. evidence: neuroplasticity, shown by children with brain damage who grow up ok, or by amputees who experience sensations from missing limbs in other parts of body, like cheek
brain cells: consists of soma, dendrites, and axons; can't reproduce. 100 billion of them. can be as long as 3 feet. can only send/receive certain types of neurotransmitters. actively do something or actively inhibit.
where info comes into a neuron. can grow/lose dendrites. info can be: chemical signal from another cell or info from external world (photon of light) or external chemical
space between neurons; between pre- and post-synaptic neurons
Where info goes out of a neuron. An axon also known as a nerve fibre, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands. In certain sensory neurons (pseudounipolar neurons), such as those for touch and warmth, the electrical impulse travels along an axon from the periphery to the cell body, and from the cell body to the spinal cord along another branch of the same axon.
fatty substance insulating axons; speeds transmission of electrical impulses
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in myelin sheath where saltatory conduction happens
bulb at end of axon (axon terminal) containing vessicles that contain neurotransmitters
chemical vs electrical
between neurons: chemical transmission. within neurons: electrical.
methods of neuronal classification
what they do: sensory, motor, interneuron
what is happening at a given time: pre or post synaptic
number of processes that come out of a soma: unipolar, bipolar, pseudounipolar, multipolar
one process coming out of soma; most invertebrate neurons. any area of axon can be receptive surface or can send info
two processes coming out of soma; usually sensory neuron. one axon, one dendrite
two axons; tend to be sensory. one branch of axon to spinal cord and one branch to PNS.
purkinje cells in cerebellum with lots of dendrites
send info to CNS. all sensory neurons are afferent.
send info out of CNS. all motor neurons are efferent.
within a system. all interneurons are intrinsic.
"glue" brain cells; can reproduce. most numerous. clean up dead neurons. help communication between neurons.
radial glia: orient neurons in development
schwann cells: make up myelin in PNS.
astrocytes: make up blood-brain barrier. make contact with capillaries in brain. deactivate neurotransmitters and send to blood stream.
oligodendricites: make up myelin in CNS.
dopamine decreases due to death of dopa-producing cells in substantia nigra. Can't take extra dopamine because doesn't cross blood-brain barrier, but L-dopa helps.
myelin degenerates; affects CNS.
propogation of action potential
charge goes from node to node via saltatory conduction
period in which a neuron is unlikely to fire again after firing an action potential. absolute: sodium channels closed and no chance of action potential. relative: unlikely but possible action potential.
stops sodium channels from working so neurons won't fire.
projectors: see things in front of them, like number lines. associators: link 2 senses, like colors and letters.
higher synesthetes: concept causes (eg quantity)
lower synesthetes: shape (eg letter shape) causes.
as we age, we see things as more yellow. causes blue haired ladies.
contain neurotransmitters, probably always the same type of NTs in a vessicle. Calcium causes vessicles to migrate to end of membrane and causes NTs to transmit across synapses.
excitatory post-synaptic potentials
sodium makes neuron more likely to fire.
inhibitory post-synaptic potentials
experimented with frog hearts to determine that neurons communicate via chemicals
proteins that work like lock and key with NTs
process whereby NTs that come off of post-synaptic receptor and moves back to pre-synaptic neuron; protein molecule sweeps up the NTs and puts back.
most common way to deactivate NT.
bigger molecules than ions. probably neutral charge.
can produce more NTs via food.
more distance travelled means more neurons that can be activated if they have the right receptors.
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. eg zoloft, prozac. block serotonin reuptake so serotonin binds again. takes 2-4 weeks to work; maybe because of up/down regulation that changes # of receptors.
enzyme breaks down NT so it goes into bloodstream.
Monoamine oxidase. vital role MAOs play in the inactivation of neurotransmitters. responsible for depression, anxiety, and other disorders.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor. inhibits destruction of monoamine oxidase (neuropenepherine).
AcH. mood, memory, movement, sleep
chemical precursor: choline (from milk)
allows muscles to move.
Da. addiction, infatuation, hallucination, mood.
chemical precursor: L-dopa
Ne. alertness, orienting, arousal, sleep.
5-HT. Depression, mood, sleep, aggression.
chemical precursor: tryptophan.
H. immune response related. keeps you awake.
Ep. adrenaline. fight or flight.
gamma-aminobutyric acid. chief inhibitory NT in CNS. reduces excitability of neurons. responsible for muscle tone.
fast acting IR inhibitory NT. allows chloride in; makes cell hyperpolarized.
most important and common. NT for brain function. most excitatory neurons react to glutamate.
fast acting ionotropic excitatory nt. allows sodium to enter; makes more likely to fire.
crosses blood brain barrier. binds with nicotinic receptors and tricks brain into thinking acetlycholine has binded.
brain gets rid of some receptors because it thinks it doesn't need them because so much AcH floating around; causes tolerance
parallel with nose to neck plane. sagital slice is where can see cerebellum bulge at bottom right.
parallel with ear to ear plane. coronal slice is like loaf of bread with muffin top.
self-explanatory. like slice off top of head.
face side. for brain stem and spinal cord. otherwise, belly side. for brain, aka inferior/internal.
back side. for brain stem and spinal cord. for brain, outer layer/superior.
rostral - anterior
rostral = toward nose on horiz plane
clump of somas, eg thalamus
projections or tract
bundle of axons in CNS
bundles of axons in periphery. take in messages for senses.
clumps of neurons in periphery
sensory and motor neurons. responsible for muscle and limb position. takes info from periphery below neck and sendds info for movement to lims and trunk. also called voluntary NS, but includes reflexes that aren't voluntary.
internal systems, eg guts, glands, smooth muscles like heart.
enteric division: guts pancreas gallbladder (sometimes considered separate from ANS)
sympathetic division: fight or flight
parasympathetic: rest and digest; feed and breed; actively inhibits sympathetic. responsible for nasal congestion, so cold medicine causes sympathetic symptoms by changing acetylcholine.
somatic and autonomic NS
mimic or increase effect of NT.
can block reuptake or stop enzymatic degradation
deactivates NT in synapse
blocks reuptake of seratonin
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
increases effects of serotonin
can bind to receptors and activate them
trick brain into thinking it has what it needs
can alter NT such that the NT is more effective
block effects of NT. block receptors.
areas of brain where fluid flows
suck out NTs from particular area to try to see what goes on in that area
damage to area of brain.
can cause lesion to animal brain to see effect.
removal of brain area
alternating sides of nostril responsible for breathing.
when left side is more active: better verbal
when right side is more active: better spatial
univ of montreal
surgeon treated epileptics and brain tumors
stimulated parts of their brains to see what happened
responsible for homunculus
people experienced memories they hadn't experienced for a long time
drill hole in skull to let out evil spirits
a barbiturate (which is usually sodium amobarbital) is introduced into one of the internal carotid arteries via a cannula or intra-arterial catheter from the femoral artery. The drug is injected into one hemisphere at a time. The effect is to shut down any language and/or memory function in that hemisphere in order to evaluate the other hemisphere ("half of the brain"). Then the patient is engaged in a series of language and memory related tests. The memory is evaluated by showing a series of items or pictures to the patient so that within a few minutes as soon as the effect of the medication is dissipated, the ability to recall can be tested.