What is the name and date of the cognitive classic study?
What is the aim of the cognitive classic study?
To investigate the influence of acoustic and semantic word similarity on learning and recall in short-term and long-term memory
Who were the participants in the cognitive classic study? What participant design was used?
Men and women from the Applied Psychology Research Unit.
Independent Groups Design
Describe the procedure of the cognitive classic study.
4 word lists of 10 words (acoustically similar, acoustically different, semantically similar, semantically similar, semantically different)
Each word presented via projector at a rate of one word every three seconds
Participants the. Completed six tasks involving memory
Recall the word list in one minute by writing the sequence in the correct order
Repeated over four trials
15 minute interference task
What were the results of the cognitive classic study?
Recall of the acoustically similar sounding words is worse than the dissimilar sounding words
Semantically similar words were more difficult to learn than the semantically dissimilar words
What is the conclusion of the cognitive classic study?
Participants found it more difficult to recall acoustically similar words which suggests that short term memory is largely acoustic.
The last recall of semantically similar words was impaired suggesting that long term memory is semantic.
What is the name and date of the learning classic study?
Watson and Rayner (1920)
What is the aim of the learning classic study?
To see if a fear response can be conditioned in an infant to a white rat using classical conditioning. Would the fear be generalised to other similar objects
Who were the participants in the learning classic study? What participant design was used?
A single case lab experiment with one child of nine months of age.
Describe the procedure of the learning classic study.
Little Albert initially tested for his responses to various stimuli including a dog, a mask, a white rat, cotton wool and burning newspapers. He had no adverse reactions. When researchers struck a hammer on a pole initially Albert was startled, then his lips began to pucker, then the child began to cry.
Two months later conditioning began (11 months old)
When presented with a rat he reached out for it. Next time he went to touch it, the bar was struck, Little Albert was shocked but did not cry. After 7 more trials he began to crawl away very quickly at the sight of the rat. 17 days later there was evidence of stimulus generalisation. Leaned away from the rabbit, whimpered then burst in to tears. After 31 days in he was taken my his mother.
What were the results of the learning classic study?
Confirmed that a phobia of an object that was not previously feared could be learned. Stimulus generalisation was observed and lasted for 31 days.
What is the conclusion of the learning classic study?
An infant could be classically conditioned to develop a fear of a white rat. Fear responses have the potential to last a lifetime.
What is the name and date of the social classic study?
Sherif et al (1961)
What is the aim of the social classic study?
To investigate inter group relations over a period of time when various induced situations were introduced
How could conflict be resolved.
Who were the participants in the social classic study? What participant design was used?
22 boys of 11-years old who were described as ‘normally adjusted’ from middle class Protestant families from Oklahoma City. The boys were not acquainted with each other
Describe the procedure of stage one of the social classic study.
First 5-6 days. The two groups are kept separate from each other and each group took part in activities designed to encourage in-group formation. Researchers observed the verbal and non-verbal communication and the relationships that emerged.
Describe the procedure of stage two of the social classic study.
Day 6-12. Boys were brought in to contact with each other during competitions as part of a camp tournament. Each group member had to contribute and they were all subjected to to situations that they would find frustrating and believed were caused by the other group.
Describe the procedure of stage three of the social classic study.
Final 6-7 days. Took part in conflict resolution through the introduction of common goals to ensure cooperation
1) fixing the water tank
2) a joint camp over where they had to work together for food and sleeping gear
3) starting the broken down bus
What were the results of the social classic study?
Stage 1: boys formed their own sets of group norms and rules. They created names for their groups (Eagles and Rattlers) and developed an ‘us’ and ‘them’ attitude.
Stage 2: boys began to fight, name call and the Eagles burned the Rattlers’ flag. They called them stinkers, braggers and sissies. 93% of friendships were in group
Stage 3: no name calling and noticeable reduction in hostility. Groups asked to sit together on the coach.
What is the conclusion of the social classic study?
Strong in group identities were formed initially and with the introduction of competition, negative out group bias quickly emerged. Introduction of superordinate goals had a cumulative effect in reducing negative out-group bias. Supports the realistic conflict theory
What is the name and date of the biological classic study?
Raine et al 1997
What is the aim of the biological classic study?
To find out if participants pleading not guilty you reason of insanity would show brain dysfunctions in areas of the brain associated with violence (prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus etc)
Who were the participants in the biological classic study? What participant design was used?
Two groups of 41 males, 39 males and 2 females in each group. Independent measures with matched pairs. Experimental group, mix of people with schizophrenia, brain damage, substance abuse. All medication free for two weeks.
Describe the ways in which the participants of the biological classic study were matched.
Control group matched with experimental group on age and gender, all remained medication free for two weeks before and all were screened for general health.
Describe the procedure of the biological classic study.
Participants given a continuous performance task which consisted of a blurred number sequence to focus on. Started for a practice 10mins before being injected with flurodeoxyglucose. After a further 32 minutes of the CPT a PET scan was completed to measure metabolic rate in different areas of the brain.
What were the results of the biological classic study?
Support found for the hypothesis. Compared to the control group, murderers showed; lower activity in the pre-frontal cortex, asymmetrical activity in the amygdala and higher activity on the right of the thalamus.
What is the conclusion of the biological classic study?
Brain differences are associated with many behavioural changes that could relate to violent behaviour. Prefrontal cortex is linked to impulsive lack of control, amygdala and thalamus linked to learning.
What is the name and date of the criminal classic study?
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
What is the aim of the criminal classic study?
To investigate whether leading questions would influence the estimations of the speed of a vehicle among eyewitnesses
Who were the participants in the criminal classic study? What participant design was used?
46 students, independent measures.
Describe the procedure (part 1) of the criminal classic study.
Each participant shown 7 short clips of a traffic accident and after each clip they were asked to give an account of the accident. The film clips were between 5-30 seconds long and were shown in a different order for each group. Asked a critical question “about how fast were the cars going when they (contacted, bumped, hit, collided, smashed) each other?”
Describe the procedure (part 2) of the criminal classic study.
150 students watched a film showing a multiple car accident which lasted for less than 1 minute. Answered a questionnaire then a week later returned and were asked “did you see any broken glass?”
What were the results (part 1) of the criminal classic study?
Smashed (40.5mph), collided (39.3mph), bumped (38.1mph), hit (34.0mph) and contacted (31.8mph)
What were the results (part 2) of the criminal classic study?
Number of people who saw glass, smashed-16, hit-7 and control-6
What is the conclusion (part 1) of the criminal classic study?
Participants were uncertain of the speed and so used the verb to help them predict. Wording of the question causes a change in memory
What is the conclusion (part 2) of the criminal classic study?
has an effect on reconstructive memory, leading questions influence eye witness testimony.
What is the name and date of the clinical classic study?s
Rosenhan et al (1973)
What is the three key assumptions of the clinical classic study?
The hospital staff were competant
The participants would behave in all respects apart from one as they normally did
There was never a suggestion that the participants had recieved any previous help with issues of mental health
What is the aim of the clinical classic study?
To determine what would happen to eight ‘sane’ people who self-admitted to twelve psychiatric
To test whether they would be identified as ‘pseudo-patients’ or whether they would be diagnosed with a mental illness
What is the procedure of study one of the clinical classic study?
There was a total of eight pseudo-patients, three women and five men who all did not wash for five days prior to the experiment starting.
Each called the hospital and said that they were hearing voices saying ‘empty’ ‘hollow’ and ‘thud’
All details that were given were of their own life except their name and occupation.
Once admitted they acted completely normally and did not take any medication.
All 12 of the hospitals varied in status, size and location.
What is the results of study one of the clinical classic study?
All 8 pseudo-patients were admitted
All but one were given diagnosis of schizophrenia in remission
Average length of time in hospitl was 19 days
What is the conclusion of study one of the clinical classic study?
Doctors are more likely to eir on the side of caution
Patients could see that the pseudo-patients were not ill
Lack of doctor observation. Once given a label, all of your behaviours seem to support the label.
What is the procedure of study two of the clinical classic study?
Rosenhan told doctors that sometime over the next three months he would send pseudo patients in to the hospitals. In reality, he sent none.
What are the results of study two of the clinical classic study?
Out of 193, 41 were judged with high confidence to be pseudo-patients
23 were considered suspect
19 were thought to be pseudo-patients by one psychiatrist and one other staff member
But Rosenhan never sent any patients.
What is the conclusion of study two of the clinical classic study?
Once you have been given a label, all your future behaviour seems to support the title.
Doctors were aware of not wanting to over diagnose so didn’t.