Flashcards in Classic study - Baddeley (1966) Deck (23):
Previous studies into STM have shown that...
when words are acoustically similar, recall is negatively affected (more so than when words were semantically similar)
STM lasts for...
less than one minute
LTM lasts for...
What affects recall in both STM and LTM?
1. To see if in LTM acoustic similarity of words would lead to more memory impairment than would semantic similarity of words.
2. To investigate the encoding of STM and LTM.
word lists; acoustically similar/dissimilar, semantically similar/dissimilar
number of words recorded in the correct order
> males and females selected from 'The Applied Psychology Research Unit'
> approx. 20 Ps per group
Ps learned a list of 10 acoustically similar words
(man, cab, can, cad, cap, mad, max, mat, cat, map)
Acoustic dissimilarity (control):
Ps learned a list of 10 acoustically relatively dissimilar words, which were matched with list A in terms of frequency of use
(pit, few, cow, pen, sup, bar, day, hot, rig, bun)
Ps learned a list of 10 semantically similar adjectives
(great, large, big, huge, broad, long, tall, fat, wide, high)
Semantic dissimilarity (control):
Ps learned a list of 10 semantically dissimilar adjectives, matched with list C for frequency of use
(good, huge, hot same, thin, deep, strongest, foul, old, late)
Step by step
1. Each list was presented - 1 word every 3 seconds in the correct order
2. Ps completed 6 tasks involving memory for digits - they recalled the word list in 1 minute by writing down the sequence in order - this was repeated over 4 trials
3. The groups were given a 15 minute interference task involving copying 8 digit sequences at their own pace
4. Ps were given a surprise retest on the word sequence
Acoustically similar list
no significant difference from the trials to the retest
Semantically similar list
scores in the control group were higher
Comparison between recall of acoustically similar and dissimilar words
Recall of acoustically similar sounding words was worse than the dissimilar sounding words during the initial phase of learning (particularly in trial 2)
However this was not statistically significant therefore encoding was initially difficult but didn't affect long term memory recall
Comparison between recall of semantically similar and dissimilar words
Ps found the semantically similar words harder to learn than the semantically dissimilar words and recalled significantly fewer semantically similar words in the retest
The fact that Ps found it harder to recall list one in the initial phase of learning suggests that...
STM is largely acoustic, therefore acoustically similar words were harder to encode
Retest really of list three, four and during retest was impaired in the semantically similar list, suggesting that...
encoding in the LTM is largely semantic