Classic study - Baddeley (1966) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Classic study - Baddeley (1966) Deck (23):
1

BACKGROUND:
Previous studies into STM have shown that...

when words are acoustically similar, recall is negatively affected (more so than when words were semantically similar)

2

BACKGROUND:
STM lasts for...

less than one minute

3

BACKGROUND:
LTM lasts for...

potentially forever

4

BACKGROUND:
What affects recall in both STM and LTM?

interference

5

AIMS

1. To see if in LTM acoustic similarity of words would lead to more memory impairment than would semantic similarity of words.

2. To investigate the encoding of STM and LTM.

6

METHOD:
Research method

lab experiment

7

METHOD:
Participant design

independent measures

8

METHOD:
Sampling method

opportunity sampling

9

METHOD:
Independent variable

word lists; acoustically similar/dissimilar, semantically similar/dissimilar

10

METHOD:
Dependent variable

number of words recorded in the correct order

11

METHOD:
Sample

> males and females selected from 'The Applied Psychology Research Unit'

> approx. 20 Ps per group

12

PROCEDURE:
Condition A

Acoustic similarity:

Ps learned a list of 10 acoustically similar words

(man, cab, can, cad, cap, mad, max, mat, cat, map)

13

PROCEDURE:
Condition B

Acoustic dissimilarity (control):

Ps learned a list of 10 acoustically relatively dissimilar words, which were matched with list A in terms of frequency of use

(pit, few, cow, pen, sup, bar, day, hot, rig, bun)

14

PROCEDURE:
Condition C

Semantic similarity:

Ps learned a list of 10 semantically similar adjectives

(great, large, big, huge, broad, long, tall, fat, wide, high)

15

PROCEDURE:
Condition D

Semantic dissimilarity (control):

Ps learned a list of 10 semantically dissimilar adjectives, matched with list C for frequency of use

(good, huge, hot same, thin, deep, strongest, foul, old, late)

16

PROCEDURE:
Step by step

1. Each list was presented - 1 word every 3 seconds in the correct order

2. Ps completed 6 tasks involving memory for digits - they recalled the word list in 1 minute by writing down the sequence in order - this was repeated over 4 trials

3. The groups were given a 15 minute interference task involving copying 8 digit sequences at their own pace

4. Ps were given a surprise retest on the word sequence

17

RESULTS:
Acoustically similar list

no significant difference from the trials to the retest

18

RESULTS:
Semantically similar list

scores in the control group were higher

19

RESULTS:
Comparison between recall of acoustically similar and dissimilar words

Recall of acoustically similar sounding words was worse than the dissimilar sounding words during the initial phase of learning (particularly in trial 2)

However this was not statistically significant therefore encoding was initially difficult but didn't affect long term memory recall

20

RESULTS:
Comparison between recall of semantically similar and dissimilar words

Ps found the semantically similar words harder to learn than the semantically dissimilar words and recalled significantly fewer semantically similar words in the retest

21

CONCLUSIONS:
The fact that Ps found it harder to recall list one in the initial phase of learning suggests that...

STM is largely acoustic, therefore acoustically similar words were harder to encode

22

CONCLUSIONS:
Retest really of list three, four and during retest was impaired in the semantically similar list, suggesting that...

encoding in the LTM is largely semantic

23

CONCLUSIONS:
Overall conclusion

The study demonstrates how STM and LTM are affected differently by different types of encoding