Cognitive Practical Investigation Flashcards Preview

Psychology - Cognitive > Cognitive Practical Investigation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognitive Practical Investigation Deck (21):
1

Abstract (main points)

> Aim
> Alternative hypothesis
> Participants
> Opportunity sampling
> Procedure

2

Introduction (main points)

> The multi-store model of memory explains how we remember information (rehearsal)
> We tested this theory
> Aim
> Hypothesis

3

Aim

Does rehearsal of information affect how well we remember it?

4

Variables (IV & DV)

IV: time allowed for rehearsal / rehearsal prevented by counting backwards in 3s from 276
DV: the number of words remembered from a list

5

Alternative hypothesis

There will be a significant difference in the number of words recorded from a list when rehearsal is prevented. More words will be recorded when rehearsal is not prevented.

6

Null hypothesis

there will be no significant difference in the number of word recorded from a list.

7

Participants

20 participants
5 male, 15 female
aged 16 (year 12)
psychology students at the same sixth form

8

Sampling method

opportunity

9

Apparatus

whiteboard, projector, pen, paper, 2 lists of 15 words, computer, timed slideshow

10

Procedure (8 steps)

1. provide pen and paper

2. Ps prevented with one word at a time, 3 seconds each

3. rehearsal prevention for 1 minute (counting backwards from 276 in 3s)

4. free recall memory test - Ps wrote down as many words as they could remember - 2 mins

5. Ps calculated how many words they recalled

6. another list of 15 words presented to Ps, one at a time, 3 seconds each

7. Ps allowed 1 minute rehearsal time

8. free recall memory test of 2nd list

11

Controls (4)

- noise > the room was silent
- time > same time for rehearsal and prevention
- words > same number for each list, similar length
- same Ps

12

Ethical issues (4)

- no informed consent > consent gained but not informed
- deception > Ps couldn't know true aim
- right to withdraw > allowed at any time
- debrief > deceit rectified, true aim told

13

Results

SCORE 1
Mean: 6.85
Median: 6
Mode: 6
Range: 12

SCORE 2
Mean: 8.3
Median: 7
Mode: 7
Range: 12

14

Conclusion

Rehearsal does affect how well we remember information.

15

Evaluation: generalisability

Low - limited sample due to similar Ps

16

Evaluation: reliability

High - standardised procedure (e.g. same amount of time for each word list for each P and same words)

High - strict control over extraneous variables (controlled noise level)

17

Evaluation: applications

Yes - advice to students that rehearsal of information helps you to remember it

18

Evaluation: validity

High - strict control over extraneous variables so we can establish cause and effect relationship --> we know a change in our DV is due to a change in the IV and nothing else

High - repeated measures participant design means controlled participant variables

Low ecological validity - artificial environment influences behaviours

19

Evaluation: ethics

High - Ps given right to withdraw at any time and were debriefed

However - deceit and no informed consent

20

Evaluation: order effects

due to repeated measures participant design: practise = improvement OR fatigue after one go

21

Improvements for future research

G - wider sample
V - more natural environment