Flashcards in Classic Techniques : Deck (30):
its making author/speaker seem credible, reliable, or relateable -
appeals to emotion (positive or negative).
it can be effective, but it can also be a manipulative thing.
ex. sad animal commercials
persuasion by reasoning or logic.
refers to the organization of the essay
ex. pointing out the benefits ; facts
they are common errors in reasoning or logic -
false logics; seems like they make sense but don't.
what are 3 parts of the Toumlin Model -
its the idea that author is trying to prove -
examples and explanations offered as proof for argument -
connection between claim and data -
if A happens, then evntually through a series of small steps, through B,C, ....... Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z.
If we dont want Z to happen, then A most not be allowed to occur either -
this is a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence.
you are rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts
is based on an argument tht the origins of a person, idea, institute, or theory determine is character, nature, or worth -
restates the argument rather than actually proving it -
it oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to only 2 sides or choices -
either / or
another name for either/or -
attack on the character of a person rather than his or her opinions or arguments -
emotional appeal that speaks to positive or negative concepts rather than the real issue at hand -
another name for ad populum -
no true scotsman
it oversimplifies an opponents viewpoint and then attacks that hallow argument -
playing on fears of the audience by making it seem like something scary will happen if some proposition were accepted -
appeal to fear
-"if we ban hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban hummers." -
"even though it's only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course" -
"the volkswagon beetle is an evil car because it was originally designed by Hitler's army." -
"George bush is a good communicator because he speaks effectively" -
"we can either stop using cars or destroy the earth." -
"green peace's strategies aren't effective because they are all dirty, lazy hippies."
"if you were a true American you would support the rights of people to choose whatever vehicle they want"
"people who don't support the proposed state minimum wage increase hate the poor."
who was it developed by?
the greek philosopher, Aristole
fallacies can either be ____________ arguments OR ________ points