Classification Flashcards Preview

LING 102 > Classification > Flashcards

Flashcards in Classification Deck (65):
1

___, ___ and ___ are the most common word orders for most languages.

SOV, SVO, VSO

2

English has a ___ word order

SVO

3

If a language has VO word order, will it likely have prepositions or postpositions?

Prepositions

4

If a language has an OV word order, will it likely have prepositions or postpositions?

Postpositions

5

____________ affixes occur closer to the root than ______________ affixes.

Derivational, inflectional

6

What are some examples of Indo-European branches?

Germanic
Celtic
Italic
Hellenic
Albanian
Armenian
Baltic
Slavic
Indo-Iranian

7

The Germanic branch of Indo-European can be divided up into ____, _____, ____.

North, East, West.

8

Swedish and Danish are ____ _____ languages.

North Germanic

9

Icelandic, Norwegian and Faroese are all ___ _____ langauges.

North Germanic

10

English, German and Dutch are all ____ ______ languages.

West Germanic

11

The only East Germanic language is _____.

(Gothic)

12

Yiddish, Afikaans and Frisian are all ____ _____ languages

West Germanic

13

Celtic is a branch of the _____-_______ family.

Indo-European

14

The two sub-branches of the Insular branch of Celtic languages are called _____ and _____..

Brythonic and Goidelic

15

(Gaulish) is the only __________ language in the Celtic family.

Continental

16

Welsh, Breton and (Cornish) are all _______ Celtic languages.

Brythonic

17

Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic and (Manx) are all _______ Celtic languages.

Goidelic

18

The four branches of Italic languages are ____, ____, ____ and ____.

Ibero-Romance, Gallo-Romance, Italo-Romance and Balkano-Romance

19

Spanish and Portugese are both ____-______ languages.

Ibero

20

French, Catalan and Romansch are ____-______ languages.

Gallo-Romance

21

Italian and Sardinian are ____-_______ languages.

Italo-Romance

22

Romanian is the best-known _____-______ language.

Balkano-Romance

23

Greek is the only living _______ language.

Hellenic

24

Armenian is the only _______ language, and Albanian is the only ______ language.

Armenian, Albanian

25

Latvian and Lithuanian are the two surviving _____ languages.

Baltic

26

The Slavic family is divided into ____, ____ and ____ branches.

East, west, South

27

Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusan are examples of ____ _____ languages.

East Slavic

28

Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian are examples of ____ _____ languages

South Slavic

29

Polish, Czech and Slovak are ____ _____ languages.

West Slavic

30

Bulgarian and Slovene are ___ ______ languages

South Slavic

31

Hindi, Urdu, Farsi, Gypsy/Romany and Kurdish are all ___-_____ languages

Indo-Iranian

32

Hindi and Urdu are two dialects of the same language. What are the differences?

They have different writing systems and are spoken in different regions.

33

The two branches of Indo-Iranian are ____ and ____.

Iranian and Indic

34

What is areal relatedness between languages?

Shared features are due to contact and geographical closeness.

35

What is genetic relatedness between languages?

Shared features are due to historical relatedness

36

What is linguistic relatedness between languages?

Shared features are coincidental, they just work similarly

37

Are interdental fricatives (ie. th) marked or unmarked?

Marked

38

Are nasals or oral vowels more marked?

Nasals are more marked

39

What are the 5 most common vowels?

/a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/

40

If a language only had 3 vowels, what would they likely be?

/a/ /i/ /u/

41

What is an average number of vowels?

5-9

42

Are long vowels or short vowels more marked?

Short vowels

43

Are fricatives or stops more marked?

Fricatives

44

what are the most common fricatives?

/s/ and /f/

45

What is the most common nasal consonant?

/n/

46

Would it be strange to find a language without liquids?

Yes -- languages wihtout liquids are rare

47

Are voiced obstruents or voiceless obstruents more marked?

Voiced obstruents

48

What is the average range of phonemes in a language?

11-77

49

Are level tones (high/low) or contour tones (rising/falling) more marked?

Contour tones

50

What are the 3 most common consonants in order?

/t/ /k/ and /p/

51

What is the maximum number for a consonant cluster in English?

3 (ie. skr, spl)

52

Are prefixes or suffixes more marked?

Prefixes

53

What is an ergative language?

A language that is an exception to the grammatical hierarchies - treats a subject like an object.

54

What is the grammatical hierarchy?

Subject > direct object > indirect object

55

If an object is embedded to the right of a verb, ___ _______will also be embedded to the right.

extra information

56

How many branches does Indo-European have?

9

57

Proximate and obviate are the two types of __-person ______.

3rd-person singular

58

Inclusive and exclusive are the two types of __-person _____..

1st-person plural

59

What is a NORM?

A non-mobile, older, rural male

60

In a bilingual conversation, the primary language is called the _____ language and the secondary language is called the ________ language,

Primary: matrix
secondary: embedded

61

What is the lexifier language in creating a creole?

The one that supplies most of the vocabulary

62

What is the substratum language in creating a creole?

The one that supplies most of the grammar

63

In a creole, is the lexifier or substratum language the one that was there "first"?

Substratum

64

The theory that all pidgins started out as the same proto-pidgin is called

The Relexification Hypothesis

65

The theory that our universal grammar fills in the gaps of pidgins naturally is called

The Biprogram Hypothesis