Flashcards in Classification Deck (65):
___, ___ and ___ are the most common word orders for most languages.
SOV, SVO, VSO
English has a ___ word order
If a language has VO word order, will it likely have prepositions or postpositions?
If a language has an OV word order, will it likely have prepositions or postpositions?
____________ affixes occur closer to the root than ______________ affixes.
What are some examples of Indo-European branches?
The Germanic branch of Indo-European can be divided up into ____, _____, ____.
North, East, West.
Swedish and Danish are ____ _____ languages.
Icelandic, Norwegian and Faroese are all ___ _____ langauges.
English, German and Dutch are all ____ ______ languages.
The only East Germanic language is _____.
Yiddish, Afikaans and Frisian are all ____ _____ languages
Celtic is a branch of the _____-_______ family.
The two sub-branches of the Insular branch of Celtic languages are called _____ and _____..
Brythonic and Goidelic
(Gaulish) is the only __________ language in the Celtic family.
Welsh, Breton and (Cornish) are all _______ Celtic languages.
Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic and (Manx) are all _______ Celtic languages.
The four branches of Italic languages are ____, ____, ____ and ____.
Ibero-Romance, Gallo-Romance, Italo-Romance and Balkano-Romance
Spanish and Portugese are both ____-______ languages.
French, Catalan and Romansch are ____-______ languages.
Italian and Sardinian are ____-_______ languages.
Romanian is the best-known _____-______ language.
Greek is the only living _______ language.
Armenian is the only _______ language, and Albanian is the only ______ language.
Latvian and Lithuanian are the two surviving _____ languages.
The Slavic family is divided into ____, ____ and ____ branches.
East, west, South
Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusan are examples of ____ _____ languages.
Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian are examples of ____ _____ languages
Polish, Czech and Slovak are ____ _____ languages.
Bulgarian and Slovene are ___ ______ languages
Hindi, Urdu, Farsi, Gypsy/Romany and Kurdish are all ___-_____ languages
Hindi and Urdu are two dialects of the same language. What are the differences?
They have different writing systems and are spoken in different regions.
The two branches of Indo-Iranian are ____ and ____.
Iranian and Indic
What is areal relatedness between languages?
Shared features are due to contact and geographical closeness.
What is genetic relatedness between languages?
Shared features are due to historical relatedness
What is linguistic relatedness between languages?
Shared features are coincidental, they just work similarly
Are interdental fricatives (ie. th) marked or unmarked?
Are nasals or oral vowels more marked?
Nasals are more marked
What are the 5 most common vowels?
/a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/
If a language only had 3 vowels, what would they likely be?
/a/ /i/ /u/
What is an average number of vowels?
Are long vowels or short vowels more marked?
Are fricatives or stops more marked?
what are the most common fricatives?
/s/ and /f/
What is the most common nasal consonant?
Would it be strange to find a language without liquids?
Yes -- languages wihtout liquids are rare
Are voiced obstruents or voiceless obstruents more marked?
What is the average range of phonemes in a language?
Are level tones (high/low) or contour tones (rising/falling) more marked?
What are the 3 most common consonants in order?
/t/ /k/ and /p/
What is the maximum number for a consonant cluster in English?
3 (ie. skr, spl)
Are prefixes or suffixes more marked?
What is an ergative language?
A language that is an exception to the grammatical hierarchies - treats a subject like an object.
What is the grammatical hierarchy?
Subject > direct object > indirect object
If an object is embedded to the right of a verb, ___ _______will also be embedded to the right.
How many branches does Indo-European have?
Proximate and obviate are the two types of __-person ______.
Inclusive and exclusive are the two types of __-person _____..
What is a NORM?
A non-mobile, older, rural male
In a bilingual conversation, the primary language is called the _____ language and the secondary language is called the ________ language,
What is the lexifier language in creating a creole?
The one that supplies most of the vocabulary
What is the substratum language in creating a creole?
The one that supplies most of the grammar
In a creole, is the lexifier or substratum language the one that was there "first"?
The theory that all pidgins started out as the same proto-pidgin is called
The Relexification Hypothesis