Historical Linguistics Flashcards Preview

LING 102 > Historical Linguistics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Historical Linguistics Deck (85):
1

What are the 4 stages of english?

Old, Middle, Early Modern, Modern

2

What is regressive assimilation?

Loss of the nasal consonant

3

What is umlaut (aka vowel harmony)?

When the vowel in one syllable influences the vowel in another

4

What is it called when you lose a sound at the beginning of the word?

Apheresis

5

"cot" and "caught" used to sound different. What is the process of them becoming more phonologically similar called?

merging

6

consonant deletion and vowel insertion are examples of ___

articulatory simplification

7

____ reflects the preference of speakers for regular patterns over irregular ones

analogy

8

hamburger is an example of

reanalysis

9

When did the Great Vowel Shift occur?

Around 1500-- during the time of the Black Plague

10

What are two methods of affix addition?

borrowing -- taking an affix from another language
grammaticalization -- taking a lexical item and weakening its lexical properties

11

What are two methods of affix deletion?

final consonant deletion
vowel deletion

12

The process of overgeneralizing particular rules in a language/dialect you don't know very well is called

hypercorrection

13

sequential change involving place or manner articulation is called ___

partial assimilation

14

sequential change involving the effect of front vowels and [j] on velar, alveolar and dental stops is called ___

palatalization

15

palatalization is a kind of ___

assimilation

16

sequential change involving a nasal consonant and its adjacent vowel is called ___

nasalization

17

sequential change involving the vowel from one syllable and its effect on a vowel in another syllable is called ___

umlaut

18

the 4 types of assimilation are:

partial assimilation, palatalization, nasalization, umlaut

19

the process whereby one segment is made less like another segment in its environment is called __

dissimilation

20

the insertion of a consonant/vowel into a particular environment is called __

epenthesis

21

the change in relative positioning of segments is called __

metathesis

22

vowel deletion that involves a word-final vowel is called __

apocope

23

vowel deletion that involves a word-internal vowel is called

syncope

24

the step that precedes vowel deletion is called __

vowel reduction

25

what is a common example of consonant deletion in english?

many things starting with k -- knee, knight, etc.

26

the weakening term that involves change of [z] to [r] is called ___

rhotacism

27

the term that involves changing a glide to an affricate is called ___

consonantal strengthening

28

what is the term for the phonological change of adding a phoneme?

splitting

29

what is the term for the phonological change of moving around the organization of phonemes in a word?

shifting

30

what is the term for a word's meaning changing to become more positive?

amelioration

31

what is the term for a word's meaning changing to become more positive?

pejoration

32

what is the term for a word's meaning changing to become weaker?

weakening

33

what is the term for a word's meaning changing to become more inclusive?

broadening

34

what is the term for a word's meaning changing to become more exclusive?

narrowing

35

what is the term for a word's meaning changing to lose its original meaning & take on a new one?

semantic shift

36

what is the term for the change in stress patterns of a word to change its meaning?

lexical diffusion

37

substratum lexical change is

by the dominated group

38

superstratum lexical change is

by the dominating group

39

adstratum lexical change is

between two equal groups

40

(more/less) frequent words catch on more easily during lexical diffusion

less

41

changes that are associated with an (upper/lower) class catch on more easily during lexical diffusion

upper

42

what is the most reliable sign of family relationships between languages?

systematic phonetic correspondences

43

words that have descended from a common source are called __

cognates

44

what is the process of linking two words back to a common etymon by observing phonetic processes?

phonetic plausibility

45

what is the process of picking an etymon based on the one that is found in most languages in that family?

majority rules

46

Does phonetic plausibility or majority rules take precedece over the other?

phonetic plausibility

47

palatalization is common before ___

front vowels

48

Do voiced consonants lose their voicing between vowels?

No

49

Do voiced consonants often become fricatives?

Yes

50

What is the difference between reconstruction and internal reconstruction?

Internal reconstruction happens within the same languages while reconstruction happens across languagaes

51

Who was Rask?

One of the key discoverers of Indo-European

52

What is Grimm's Law?

a special set of consonant shifts that affected the change from Proto-Indo-European to Germanic

53

What did neo-grammarians argue? What was the problem?

that sound laws operate without exception, but they paid no attention to social factors or bilingualism

54

What is it called when you add a letter to a word?

epethesis

55

what is it called when you delete a letter from a word?

apheresis

56

what is it called when you change the order of letters in a word?

metathesis

57

what is it called when you change a consonant from voiceless to voiced?

voicing

58

what is it called when a vowel influences another vowel in the word?

umlaut / vowel harmony

59

what is it called when a voiced vowel makes a voiceless consonant become voiced?

voice assimilation

60

what is it called when a vowel becomes schwa?

vowel reduction

61

what is the most common syllable structure?

CV

62

what are spoonerisms?

slips of the tongue that involve the switching of letters in sentences

63

what is classified as a positive priming effect?

when the prime and the target are related in our minds

64

we focus on groups of __-__ words before saccading to the next group

2-3

65

we focus on groups of words for about ___ sec. before saccading.

1/4

66

Is N-400 lexical or grammatical?

lexical

67

Is P-600 lexical or grammatical?

grammatical

68

what is bottom-up processing?

individual units

69

what is top-down processing?

overall meaning

70

what is it called when words beginning with the same phonemes are grouped together?

cohort model

71

what is late closure?

when you feel inclined to attach a noun to the current clause

72

what is minimal attachment?

it assumes the smallest Noun phrases, or minimal embedding.

73

the brain weighs about ___

3lbs

74

the brain has about 10-100 ____ neurons

billion

75

the 2 hemispheres are joined by the ______

corpus callosum

76

Is language more or less lateralized for Left Handers?

less lateralized

77

Broca's Area is in the ____ lobe and is involved in language _____.

frontal, production

78

Wernicke's area is in the ____ lobe and is involved in language _____/

temporal, comprehension

79

Which type of brain monitoring involves glucose in the blood stream?

PET scans

80

Which type of brain monitoring involves iron in the blood stream?

fMRI

81

Which type of brain monitoring is the most accurate?

MEG

82

the angular gyrus plays an important role in ___

reading

83

Which type of brain monitoring involves slices of the brain?

CT scan

84

What is the silence between words in Broca's aphasics called?

dysprosody

85

Omission of "little words" in Broca's aphasics is called __

telegraphic speech