Classification of Seizures Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics Final Final Exam > Classification of Seizures > Flashcards

Flashcards in Classification of Seizures Deck (16):
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Tonic-Clonic Seizures

1. Tonic-clonic seizures cause an abrupt arrest of activity and impairment of consciousness

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Tonic-Clonic Seizures
-Tonic Phase

1. The tonic phase consists of a sustained, generalized stiffening of muscles, including the diaphragm, lasting a few seconds

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Tonic-Clonic Seizures
-Clonic Phase

1. Clonic Phase is symmetrical and rhythmic
-consisting of alternating contraction and relaxation of major muscle groups
-Usually ends spontaneously in less than 5 minutes

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Tonic-Clonic Seizures
-S/S

1. Respirations are irregular
2. Child may have stridor

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Tonic-Clonic Seizures
-Incontinence

1. Sphincter incontinence (stool and/or urine) may or may not occur

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Tonic-Clonic Seizures
-What happens after??

1. The tonic-clonic seizure is followed by a variable period of confusion, lethargy, and sleep (POSTICTAL PHASE)
2. You will see FATIGUE

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Atonic Seizures

1. Atonic seizures cause an abrupt loss of postural tone, impairment of consciousness, confusion, lethargy, and sleep

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Atonic Seizures
-Head Drop

1. A child may have multiple episodes of sudden and brief head drop or the child may have a drop attack;
-fall to the ground, often face down, lose consciousness for a few seconds, and then get back up as if nothing happened

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Myoclonic Seizures

1. Myoclonic seizures are brief, random contractions of a muscle group, followed by loss of muscle tone and forward falling
2. Impairment of consciousness may occur during myoclonic seizures

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Myoclonic Seizures
-Onset

1. Onset can occur as early as age 2 months
2. More frequently seen in school-age children or adolescents than in very young children

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Absence Seizure
(petit mal seizures)

1. Absence seizures are very brief episodes of altered consciousness
2. No muscle activity occurs except upward rolling of the eyes
3. Blank facial expression
4. Last 5-10 seconds
5. Can occur hundreds of times a day
6. Onset usually occurs between ages 5-8 yrs

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Absence Seizure
-Characterized by?

1. Absence seizures are characterized by children immediately returning to the activities they were involved in just prior to the seizure

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Atypical Absence Seizure

1. Child may experience some Myoclonic movements (eyelid fluttering) and muscle tone changes (head bobbing)

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Focal Seizures

1.Onset at any age
2. An aura is part of a focal seizure

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Focal Seizures
-S/S

Motor features, which are commonly seen in focal seizures include:
1. Involuntary, brief movement localized to one area
2. Turning eyes and head away from the side of the seizure

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Focal Seizures
-Automatisms

1. During a focal seizure, children can exhibit automatisms, repetitive, non-purposeful movements of the mouth and extremities such as lip smacking, chewing, teeth grinding, scratching, pulling at clothing or sheets, and shuffling