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Flashcards in Climate Crisis Deck (29)
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1

Masco (2017)

- crisis become counterrevolutionary idiom - mode control and stabilising a condition
- US capitalist model denotes a crisis in crisis: the state within external crisis like climate change - policies and econ priorities exacerbate crisis

2

Smith et al. (2007)

Interdependence key to responsibilities to people distant in space and time and to nonhuman natural world. (climate change and globalisation)

3

IPCC (2018)

Must keep Global Warming below 1.5 degrees

4

Latour (2017)

saying something is a crisis = reassuring that it will pass. (Climate crisis more a) mutation in our relation to the world

5

A Few General Useful Books / Articles

- Silent Spring - Carson (1962)
- Gaia - Lovelock (1979)
- Rich (2018) = decade almost stopped climate change (online article)
- Field Notes - Kolbert (2015)
- Equality - Dorling (2017)
- anthropocene - Bonneuil and Fressoz (2017)

[- Ehrlich 1968 Population Bomb
- Club of Rome The Limits to Growth 1972]

6

Oreskes and Conway (2010) - Merchants of Doubt

fossil fuel companies supporting climate deniers and stalling climate progress. scientists against scientists because may work for harmful industry. Environmentalism also seen as new form communism. Hiding the truth about climate change. (1990s)

7

Oreskes (2004)

Scientific consensus is that climate change is caused by humans.

8

Corfee-Morlot et al. (2007)

Climate Change into public sphere and political agenda
- US increased climate change research funding 400% 1971-75
- 1988 first international meeting of west govs to call restrictions GHG emissions
- 1989 Exon Valdez oil spill
- public awareness climate change doubled 1981-89

9

Chakrabarty (2009)

- Anthropogenic climate change = collapse distinction natural and human history (humans geological force)
- Anthropocene qualifies human histories modernity and globalisation
- global histories capital and species aligned (fair? capitalist west vs species everyone - anthropocene species force)
- we experience specific effects but not whole phenomenon climate crisis

10

Crutzen

- put forward the anthropocene
- argues start anthropocene as industrial rev
- favour geo-engineering

11

Palsson et al (2013)

Anthropocene first epoch geological force is conscious of its role. Thus starts when humans become aware role shaping earth. Makes a domain with intentionality and meaning.

12

Hansen

Later camp when anthropocene began - critique early.

13

Moore

Capitalocene idea: neoliberal capitalism problem (- but carbon emissions did pre-exist capitalist economies?)

14

Castree (2014)

- Anthropocene development science to public. (eg. 2012 Planet Under Pressure Conference; The Day After Tmrw)
- Anthropocene working group.
- How determine marker
- Planetary Boundaries: 9 components pass threshold = anthropocene - criticised distracting politicians emissions
- Ellis: biomes under threat, call for solutions
- Liverman: uneven impacts env change & need justice
- Anthropocene grounds rethink western thought nature/society binery
- Clark + Yusoff - humans are earthly creatures
- Robbins + Moore (2013) - need science and society cooperate
- Graham - need alternative pol-econ order to holocene
- Castree sees anthropocene as intellectual zeitgeist - how challenge understanding of human condition

15

Steffan et al (2015)

- Great Acceleration Graphs Project
- Growth resource use, economic growth, urbanisation (2008 50% pop urban areas), GDP + CO2 parallel etc.
- Some progress eg. ozone hole stabilisation (Montreal Protocol)
- Graphs mask inequality eg. OECD econ growth 74%
- China urbanisation - urban pop 1978-2010 17.9 to 52.6% (BRICs)
- support Anthropocene start 1950 (45 atomic bomb)

16

Sauer (1925)

Nature medium through which humans (culture as agent) operates

17

Hobbes, Locke and Marx

H - Nature chaotic, wild vs governed state
L - humans can order through natural laws, conform to place world
M - labour as the human activity which metabolises nature (turns in into product). Second nature vs first nature.

18

Whatmore

More-than-human-geographies
- may be in no-analogue state anthropocene = nature / human not separated but things escape our control eg. plate tectonics operate regardless humans

19

Masco (2015) Age of fallout

- live in age of fallout, inheriting problems C20th eg. env, finance - generated from industrialists, capitalism & militarism producing crises - neg aftermath golden age
- Planetary scale problem needs planetary governance as in age of fallout know planetary env changes will happen
- background CW nuclear, developing planetary understanding through impacts - anthropocene - humans threat to themselves
- ideas fallout - off duty - institutions not doing jobs properly - eg. US bill prohibiting defence department use funds global warming problems

20

Wainwright and Mann (2013)

4 social formations solve issue:
- Climate Leviathan (capitalist, planetary sovereign - eg. geoengineering, cap-and-trade, nuclear power - problems with inequality + agreements would needed)
- Climate Behemoth (no sovereign, capitalist - Trump, neoliberal - state no intervention markets - argues CC natural)
- Climate Mao (non-capital, planetary sovereign - socialist state solution - only realisable Asia - eg. China 2008 Olympics flower planting, air qual olympic games)
- Climate X (non-capital, no sovereign - utopia, not based value econ)
- climate leviathan technocratic, paris agreement (international organisations)
- Climate X = bottom-up, social protest (Dakota etc)

21

Davis (2010)

- Rich vs Poor climate crisis - need globally social system and tackle poverty alongside climate change - can't just be rich eco homes, need leapfrogging, need rich to be willing to compromise lifestyles - 29 developing countries lose over 20% farm output to global warming, where north 8% agricultural boost - 1961 richest countries caused 42% env degradation globally and took 3% costs - UNEVEN - moral failure rich let poor die / take burden - Kyoto done nothing
- Urban problem - rich urban cities - build env = 40% carbon emissions and urban industry / transport another 40%
- Anthropocene accepted Geological society London
- Controversy 4th IPCC assessment - Hansen too much leeway 450ppm too high - IPCC assumes post-carbon economy (60% carbon reduction based on this) which is not happening - IPCC 2000-07 predicted 2.7% increase CO2 annually - reality 3.5%

22

Fischetti (2015) and Chatel (2014)
Syrian Civil War and Climate Change

F
- drought syria 2006-11 due climate change pushed towards social unrest 2011 - added to poverty, pushing up food prices and on top Iraq refugees - factor broke camels back (not cause war)
C
- causes = poverty growth (econ liberalisation, cancelled state subsidies 2005 - farmers can't afford work eg. can't irrigate = migration to urban and camps), rural-urban divide, corruption, umemployment, drought + lack pol freedom
- not drought but govs failure respond humanitarian crisis = uprising - failure to adapt in general, mismanagement of natural resources, overgrazing, overexploitation - blame climate shifts responsibility off gov (gov narrative) - ignoring issue of water sector - water scarce, poor resource management eg. 100m drop groundwater levels 1950 to 2000, well licensing not monitored
- protest starting against corruption; drought hit region worst poverty NE

23

Crutzen (2002)

- anthropocene started late C18th - James Watt's design steam engine 1784
- mankind geological force, will remain env force many millennia
- need guide society towards sustainable management

24

Zalasiewicz et al. (2015) - When Anthropocene begin?

Industrial Rev = humans become geological factor but mid C20th worldwide impact acceleration.
- anthropocene as starting 1945 atomic bomb - identifiable global stratigraphic record
- discusses variety pos start anthropocene: agricultural, industrial rev, great acceleration
- Great Acceleration - bulk CO2 rise, cars agriculture intensification, globalisation, urbanisation
- can't be early, not seen strata - scale of change

25

Dalby et al (2014) After Anthropocene

- humans geological agent, forcing causing problems need face
- can't continue society nature distinctions in dealing anthropocene - blurred boundaries = need diff infrastructure politically, economically
- problem conspicuous consumption
- anthropocene we are living in aftermath event - lag climate change dynamics = unavoidable env change
- climate change needs background of all politics
- anthropocene not problem with solution, new condition - shift which questions our infrastructures
- need ecologically and socially just future including use tech - need to use tech help
- crisis as the age itself

26

Chakrabarty (2012)

- global warming + CC crisis all humanity but mediated inequalities capitalist development - literature sees one species threat to our own civilisation - impacts uneven (colonialism)
- humans experimenter 50s to a force 90s - agent climate crisis, huge geological scale
- need bring nature/human together politics (not being self aware in current practise)
- humans as one cause global warming but can't act as one political agent to solve

27

Eden (2005)

- Env problems CC now part everyday eg. lifestyle choice green vs consumption
- short term crisis like oil spill with response vs long term
- env problems construction changes time eg CC 70s global cooling, 90s global warming, 2010 low carbon economy
- env problems life cycle - rise to high profile then drop back back seats human mind

28

Mirzoeff (2013)
Climate Debt

- capitalism climate debt - developed owe developing as wealthy basis fossil fuels and carbon emissions
- inequalities impacts eg. Haiti 2012 lost agricultural harvest due Hurricane Sandy 20 inches rain
- top 100 billionaires added $240 bn wealth 2012 enough to end world poverty 4 times or four times amount promised but not paid to underdeveloped nations to adapt to CC
- climate imperialism and structural violence - history colonialism, resource exploitation, institutional racism = inequality of climate imperialism - need decolonisation of atmosphere
- disaster capitalism - desire constant growth = domination over 99%

29

Bonneuil and Fressoz (2017)
Shock of the Anthropocene

- humans disturbance geological timescale
- escape industrial modernity new environmental humanities
- challenge anthropocene grand narrative of errant human species and its redemption by science alone - science into public discussions, not market-based solutions
- abandoning hope temporary environmental crisis
- proposal different narratives than just humans distorting earth - capitalocene etc.
- not passed unawareness to awareness - ancestors destabilised the world knowing what they were doing