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Flashcards in Migration Crisis Deck (24)
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Migrant Crisis 1

European Migrant Crisis 2015
- Syrian civil war
- Migrants Syria to Turkey to EU
- Arrivals to EU 7000 people a day peak
- 2.5mn asylum claims
- 2.3m illegal crossings
- 11,000 deaths in Mediterranean


Lindley (2016)

Language of crisis is powerful


The Great Migration

- US movement Africa-Americans south to N/W due to racism


International Migration Stats

- 244 mn people 2015 0r 3.3% pop world
- Turkey largest refugee-hosting country (1.6mn)
- 10 to 15mn stateless
- 38mn internally displaced
- 250mn climate refugees by 2050


Stateless CS

Rohingya - persecuted for ethnicity = mass movement to Bangladesh where stateless as should be refugees but Bangladesh not signatory 1951 Refugee Convention


Collyer and King (2016)

- Crisis as produced and constructed narrative w specific responses
- Crisis stems from neoliberalism, pol/econ crisis, border controls (2015)


Gregory et al (2000)

- Post WW2 Europe = 1951 Convention + 1967 Protocol - eurocentric
- 1969 Organisation for African Unity
- externalisation asylum in Europe


Warf (2006)

- Growth international migration w/ globalisation - 76mn 1960 to 191mn 2006
- Ravenstein - migrants travel short distances, movement to urban centres, large towns grow more migration than natural increase


Anheier and Juergensmeyer (2012)

- Migration LEDC to MEDC - 2009 194mn and 1/3 move S to N
- Middle East 85% workforce migrants
- Two streams International Migration - C19th Europe to America (New World) vs 60s to 90s S to N (first encouraged, 2nd barriers)
- OECD external and internal border enforcement
- Struggle integration - France riots 2005
- 10% highly skilled from developing live developed
- Latin American in US spent 90% home, 10% remittances - Latin America / Caribbean $60bn remittances


Collins (2017)
Europe Child Refugee Crisis

- Jungle refugee camp Calais 40 acres, many minors alone
- UK Dubs plan not followed (accept migrant children)
- 100,000 unaccompanied children seeking asylum 2015 Eruope
- 10,000 refugee children missing Europe 2014 trafficking - 50% unaccompanied children STIs
- 2009 Fr gov destroyed first jungle, now 6,000 new 2015
- 33 deaths cross channel 2015/16
- Fr see jungle informal settlement = NGO can't operate
- hard determine age refugees - Afghan 6% births recorded post 2003
- Demolition jungle - May refuse children Britain
- even if children get into GB may not get asylum / only be safe until 17 1/2


Migrant Crisis 2
(Rundle, 2001)

MV Tampa Crisis 2001
- Boat from Indonesia asylum seekers sinking, saved MV Tampa (Norwegian freighter) rescued 433 passengers
- Tried deliver Christmas Island, Australia refuse (only supplies 27 crew boat) - eventually Howard pass Boarder Protection bill Christmas Island jurisdictional different Australia = flexibility how apply refugee convention
- Separate islands use for refugee claims, Australian intercept migrant boats spend islands- Pacific Solution
- struggle find deals eg. Naura + NZ accept some but little
- arrive sea different legal position + constructed security threat
- moral panic
- Howard gov manipulating situation gain politically (Tampa at time election - Howard behind polls - remake his image - Howard approval rating soared 77% - Howard brought party to point where only bullying boat refugees allowed retain power)


Klein (2008)

Crisis is endemic to capitalism


Foucault (1982)

Phenomenon produced by discourses
- what say or don't say relation discourse - discourses produce subjective truths ab world
- eg. discourse panic Tampa


Saxton (2003) on Tampa

Asylum seekers represented as illegal, non-genuine and a threat in nationalist discourse to legitimate gov actions and public opinion and manage issue national identity - media not allowed to present refugees as humanised


De Genova (2002)

- Everyday life undocumented migrants not considered, esp academia - they are a part of social life, illegality only relevant certain contexts
- Migrant illegality risen politics esp US-Mexico
- Meanings eg. illegal vs legal vary across globe
- Illegality certain relation to state, a pol identity
- Migrant illegality = abstraction produced by law
- Migrations are produced and patterned
- Immigration law changing constantly based historical moments to mediate crisis
- Illegality works other all noncitizen to form national identity
- Illegality in everyday life eg. surveillance to schools, police, local authorities (US, UK)
- Illegality = space forced invisibility, exclusion, repression materialises around the undocumented regardless place
- history eg. US immigration 1965 policy caused influx Mexicans created new problem - history selective border enforcement US on Mexicans = create them as alien, radicalised difference, produce stigma - saw Mexicans as reducible to labour eg. GD fired
- Undocumented migration synonymous w US state loss control borders - border spectacle of illegal alien produced by law = visibility


Race and Migration EG

Canada 1906 state policy forbade migration from anywhere other europe (white territory)
- not resented until 1960s


Migrant Crisis 3
(Paik, 2013)
(Chavez, 2012 - ACT UP)

Haitians and the US (1980s)
- Guantanamo Bay, Cuba US use refugee claims (external human rights law)
- 1991 Haitian asylum seekers intercepted high seas (Bush repatriation policy), detention Guantanamo (Bush realised if reach US can't send back due international law) - to Guantanamo and tested HIV
- HIV positive not let into US - disease associated blackness, Haitians
- Haiti revolution 1804 against Fr colony - have to pay fr 150mn gold francs to become state - imperial
- US occupation 1915-34 - offshore production (cheap labour) + naval base opposite Guantanamo - US support Duvalier (x2) dictators = free trade zone (US claim nothing wrong Haiti - reality oppressive regime - don't accept asylum claims, classed econ migrants)
- 70s US Haitian Program
- RACE (cuban white refugees allowed into US, Haitians not)
- 1981 Reagan policy can apprehend refugee vessels at sea - externalised US border (80s increasing migration)
- Constructed as boat people, derogatory, othering - language as econ migrants or illegal aliens not refugees
- those in US pol activism against treatment Haitians - ACT UP 1992-3 (challenge policy HIV-pos migrants stuck Guantanamo - 300 pol refugees) - govs banned HIV-pos migration to US 1987 (1983 4Hs AIDs includes Haitians, only national group - stigmatised, discriminated)
- ACT UP lawsuits, public protests, DIVA TV, help resettle Haitians when released to US, judge ordered refugees release 1993
- Guantanamo refugee camps closed, but US still detain Haitians
- US prepared Guantanamo 2010 Haitian earthquake


Border Externalisation Example

EU-Turkey Agreement 2018
- People arriving Greek islands returned Turkey - Turkey get 6bn euros to assist refugees, Turkish nationals can visa-free travel europe and once arrivals dropped migrants transferred to Europe
- But Turkey not safe haven refugees - corruption - take money, not use what supposed to
- EU externalising crisis


Hyndman and Mountz (2008)

- Citizens protected by gov vs no human rights - loss access sovereign territory problem externalisation asylum
- foreigners scrutinised biopolitical regimes exclusion
- Australia + EU neo-refoulement
- Asylum becoming security issue, not ab refugee protection - neutralising law for security eg. US Guantanamo
- protection refugees not law but ad hoc decisions offshore
- migration underwritten governmentally mistrust / fear of the other - use home idea and migrants - outsiders vs insiders - fear does political work - migrants framed categories, loss individual identity creating us / them
- Australia 1994 policy detention anyone arrives w/o visa
- invisible wall around EU - keep displaced closest safe place to home
- 2003 GB proposes externalisation asylum and refugees but EU vote against
- OECD countries want to de-territorialize refugee protection


Zampano et al. (2015)
Historical examples migrant crisis

WW2 - 60mn displaced
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict - 5.1mn displaced, UN looks after 5.1mn registered Palestinian refugees across 60 camps Middle East


Somalia Remittances CS

Gutale (2015)

Banning-Lover (2015)

( Lindley (2006) )

( Lindley (2009) )

- 40% Somalis rely money sent from relatives abroad; 2mn somali diaspora send remittances
- annual remittances $1.3bn more than foreign aid and investment in Somalia combined
- Banks US, UK, Australia stopping allowing send money to Somalia as concerns high risk of money laundering or funding terrorism
- Somalians can't afford medical bills, being evicted, can't pay school fees children
- Somalia no central gov since 1991 and no banking system

- 1999 fund school Galkayo, Somalia - remittances from 500 families 12 countries provide $162,000 year keep it going but charity behind schools had accounts closed
- 2011 crack down banks checks money laundering = fines eg. HSBC fined £1.2bn not checking money to Mexico - Somali high-risk customers (even 2015 after actually had proper government) - banks cut off to avoid fines - banks risks outweigh problems caused in Somalia - damage of one transaction linked terrorism huge yet little evidence money getting to terrorists - blocking banks encourages illicit financial flows eg. driving w huge amounts cash
- 40% Somalia's GDP from remittances (largest revenue)
- UK remittances not foreign policy issue despite £350m going there
- UK protests, parliamentary debates, petition w 112,000 signatories
- putting the crisis on Somalia with no gov and vulnerable

(Somalia GB colony collapsed 1991 - civil war 80s)
(Life expectancy 47, adult literacy 18%)
(2003 made 10% asylum claims UK - most national group)
(diasporas can help political groups Somalia)

(1mn live abroad out of 7.4mn)
(London large community somali diaspora - 60,000)
( 16% employed london - many barriers labour)
(61% in LND send remittances, $4,440 year sent)


Lindley (2006)

- Migration as way diversify household income - part household livelihood strategy
- Gendered eg. boys avoid military, girls may more likely send remittances home
- People situated socially, pol, econ - impact where can go - smuggle may cost $10,000 - migration collective family investment for returns remittances
- social pressure to send money home
- remittance often associated with econ migrants, can also be refugees


Lindley (2009)

- need diaspora perspective understand remittances - somewhere someone pays even if may be in host country
- remittances are not just money
- econ NELM model remittance behaviour sees migration household strategy diversify income - migration as about costs and benefits - not really often about meeting need, move to survive
- refugees are economic actors, not just victims
- diversification geog remitting - more females
- migrants econ situation impacts remittances
- huge social pressure to send remittances - not just family but communities in host country
- problem see west as rich - don't understand hardships there - difference in what £50 gets you - may be on benefits and remitting, have accept poor work easier to get than develop skill, no disposable income - N/S divide
- remittances often about maintaining social relationships
- assumed if migrant not go home remitting decrease - not necessarily the case
- need more holistic understanding


Diedring and Dorber (2015)
European Council on Refugees and Exiles

- Language (use media and politicians) creates hostile environment for refuges - used intently to stigmatise those crossing borders
- language simplifying complex situation
- long history language dehumanising people arriving Europe
- categories migrant fluid
- Refugee crisis as 94% from top 10 refugee producing countries
- 1951 Refugee Convention = no neo-refoulment, fair treatment, refugees international protection - to avoid duties, distinction refugee and others moving blurred politics
- Language of security by european leaders (strengthen borders, controls) - narrow legal entry = more illegal, smuggling etc. - seeing threat, war = toxifies and justifies poor treatment
- dehumanisation - language of water eg. flood - can't be stopped, large damage
- Refugees need treated dignity and respect