Clin Chem Flashcards Preview

Mini CPE #2 > Clin Chem > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clin Chem Deck (42):
1

2 non-nitrogenous waste products

BUN Creatinine

2

Fixed USG range

Dog: 1.008-1.012 Cat: 1.008-1.015

3

Normal USG range

1.018-1.045 (dog)

4

Normal Creatinine range

Dog: 0.15-1.8mg/dl Cat: 0.8-2.4mg/dl

5

Normal PCV ranges

Dog: 37-55% Cat: 30-45%

6

Normal TP ranges

Dog: 5-7g/dl Cat: 5-8g/dl

7

Azotemia

increases in non-protein nitrogenous wastes

8

What does a urinalysis determine?

the function of the kidney & other organs

9

ALT's old name

SGPT

10

AST's old name

SGOT

11

Liver specific enzymes

Small animal= ALT Large animal= GGT

12

What position should the patient be in for a cystocentesis? Needle size?

Dorsal 22ga 1-1.5"

13

When is it okay to redirect during a cysto?

NEVER!

14

Free catch

easiest on animal not ideal for cultures

15

Manual expression

great for getting out of the way for abdominal sx. increase in RBCs- trauma

16

When should you NEVER manually express

if the patient has a suspected obstruction

17

Catheterization

can relieve urinary obstruction requires anesthesia for cats and female dogs

18

Early morning sample

increased chance of seeing abnormalities like crystals

19

Recently formed sample

better for cytology fresh urine = fresh cells

20

Squamous epithelial cells are found where?

distal 1/3 of urethra, vagina, vulva, or prepuce Not normal on Cysto!!

21

Transitional epithelial cells

Line bladder, ureters, renal pelvis and proximal part of urethra more in cysto than free catch

22

Hypertonic urine causes ____ of RBCs

crenation

23

___ RBCs/hpf is normal

less than 5

24

Causes of fat droplets

fatty diet or DM

25

Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate

Occur more in acidic urine more common than COM

26

Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate- Hippuric shaped

May indicate ethylene glycol toxicity NEVER normal

27

Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Crystals

More common in alkaline urine Can be normal in small amounts

28

Ammonium Biurate Crystals

Normal in dalmations May indicate portosystemic shunt and liver dz. in other animals

29

Cholesterol Crystals

Never normal may indicate severe kidney dz.

30

Cystine Crystals

Never normal genetic disorder of certain amino acid metabolism

31

Bilirubin Crystals

Can be normal in small amounts Increased amounts indicates liver dz.

32

Tyrosine & Leucine

Typically seen together Never normal Indicated liver dz.

33

Equine urine contains increased

Mucus threads Calcium Carbonate Crystals

34

Most common cast

Granular

35

What casts are never normal?

Cellular

36

Liver specific enzymes

ALT AST Alk Phos GGT T-bili Cholesterol

37

3 tests used to classify azotemia

BUN Creatinine USG

38

How long is a urine sample good for at room temp?

30 min.

39

Four parts to U/A

Macroscopic Microscopic USG Chemistry

40

What do stones need to form?

Increased concentration Adequate pH Adequate time +/-Nidus

41

What are the steps for making a urinary sediment slide?

1. fill conical tube with urine sample 2. Centrifuge sample at 1,500 rpm for 3-5 minutes 3. Pour off super natent 4. Re-suspend sediment 5. tap onto slide 6. Scan on 10x, examine w/40x and low light

42

What objective is used for Urinary sediment final analysis?

40X