2 non-nitrogenous waste products
Fixed USG range
Dog: 1.008-1.012 Cat: 1.008-1.015
Normal USG range
Normal Creatinine range
Dog: 0.15-1.8mg/dl Cat: 0.8-2.4mg/dl
Normal PCV ranges
Dog: 37-55% Cat: 30-45%
Normal TP ranges
Dog: 5-7g/dl Cat: 5-8g/dl
increases in non-protein nitrogenous wastes
What does a urinalysis determine?
the function of the kidney & other organs
ALT's old name
AST's old name
Liver specific enzymes
Small animal= ALT Large animal= GGT
What position should the patient be in for a cystocentesis? Needle size?
Dorsal 22ga 1-1.5"
When is it okay to redirect during a cysto?
easiest on animal not ideal for cultures
great for getting out of the way for abdominal sx. increase in RBCs- trauma
When should you NEVER manually express
if the patient has a suspected obstruction
can relieve urinary obstruction requires anesthesia for cats and female dogs
Early morning sample
increased chance of seeing abnormalities like crystals
Recently formed sample
better for cytology fresh urine = fresh cells
Squamous epithelial cells are found where?
distal 1/3 of urethra, vagina, vulva, or prepuce Not normal on Cysto!!
Transitional epithelial cells
Line bladder, ureters, renal pelvis and proximal part of urethra more in cysto than free catch
Hypertonic urine causes ____ of RBCs
___ RBCs/hpf is normal
less than 5
Causes of fat droplets
fatty diet or DM
Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate
Occur more in acidic urine more common than COM
Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate- Hippuric shaped
May indicate ethylene glycol toxicity NEVER normal
Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Crystals
More common in alkaline urine Can be normal in small amounts
Ammonium Biurate Crystals
Normal in dalmations May indicate portosystemic shunt and liver dz. in other animals
Never normal may indicate severe kidney dz.
Never normal genetic disorder of certain amino acid metabolism
Can be normal in small amounts Increased amounts indicates liver dz.
Tyrosine & Leucine
Typically seen together Never normal Indicated liver dz.
Equine urine contains increased
Mucus threads Calcium Carbonate Crystals
Most common cast
What casts are never normal?
Liver specific enzymes
ALT AST Alk Phos GGT T-bili Cholesterol
3 tests used to classify azotemia
BUN Creatinine USG
How long is a urine sample good for at room temp?
Four parts to U/A
Macroscopic Microscopic USG Chemistry
What do stones need to form?
Increased concentration Adequate pH Adequate time +/-Nidus
What are the steps for making a urinary sediment slide?
1. fill conical tube with urine sample 2. Centrifuge sample at 1,500 rpm for 3-5 minutes 3. Pour off super natent 4. Re-suspend sediment 5. tap onto slide 6. Scan on 10x, examine w/40x and low light
What objective is used for Urinary sediment final analysis?