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Flashcards in Clin Path Lab Exam Material Deck (73)
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1
Q

What is shown in the picture? Name two things in the whores that result in this presentation:

A

Heinz Body formation

Phenothiazines and Wilted red maple leaves

1
Q

Identify the urine crystal. What is its significance?

A

Calcium carbonate

Normal in horses, rabbits, guinea pigs, and goats. No reports in canine or feline urine

1
Q

What is the significance of macrocytic anemia?

A

Indicates regenerative anemia

1
Q

Eccentrocytes occur as a result of oxidative damage. What other abnormality are these cells commonly seen with?

A

Heinz Body Formation

2
Q

Identify the urine crystal. What is its significance?

A

Calcium oxalate dihydrate

Can be normal in domestic animals. Could also be seen with:

  • increased calcium excretion due to hypercalcemia
  • acute renal failure
  • miniature schnauzers are predisposed!
2
Q

T/F: Epithelial casts in the urine indicate active tubular degeneration or necrosis and are a good indicator of the extent of tubular injury

A

False

Epithelial and fatty casts in the urine _do_ indicate active tubular degeneration or necrosis, _but are NOT evidence of the extent or reversibility of tubular injury_

2
Q

On which area of the slide would you examine RBC and WBC morphology?

A

Counting Area

2
Q

What type of cell is characteristically seen associated with rattlesnake envenomation?

A

Echinocytes

**Irrelevant fact: a group of rattlesnakes is called a rhumba (not to be confused with a Roomba®, the robotic vacuum)**

2
Q

What organism is present in these cells?

A

Histoplasma capsulatum

Macrophages (arrows) contain numerous Histoplasma capsulatum organisms, which are round yeast cells with a well-defined, thin capsule.

4
Q

What type of cell is shown?

A

Lymphocyte

5
Q

T/F: Thrombocytopenia may be caused by blood loss

A

No!

Blood loss does not cause thrombocytopenia

6
Q

What is shown in the picture? Name two conditions in the dog that result in this presentation

A

Heinz Body Formation

Cephalosporins and Zinc Toxicosis (penny ingestion) in the dog

7
Q

This is a blood film from a cat with myelodysplasia. What is present here?

A

Dysplatic giant platelets

Note the giant atypical platelets (small arrows) and the normal-appearing platelet (small arrowhead)

8
Q

What is shown here? In which condition would you typically see these?

A

Schistocytes

Schistocytes are erythrocyte fragments and are seen with intravascular trauma (DIC; vascular tumors) and with Iron Deficiency Anemia

9
Q

What is the significance of microcytic anemia?

A

Indicates iron deficiency anemia

10
Q

What type of cell is shown?

A

Neutrophil

10
Q

Identify the urine crystal. What is its significance?

A

Bilirubin

In dogs, ↓ number in highly concentrated urine is normal. In all other species, it is indicative of icterus

10
Q

What organism is present in these cells?

A

Leishmania

Note the broken mononuclear cells with numerous Leishmania donovani organisms

12
Q

These cells are from a bone marrow aspirate. What type of cells are these?

A

Basophils

14
Q

What is shown here? In which condition would you typically see these?

A

Spherocyte

  • Very indicative of IMHA!!*
  • You may also see agglutination with IMHA*
15
Q

These cells are from a bone marrow aspirate. What type of cells are these?

A

Mott Cells

Remember, Mott Cells are abnormal plasma cells characterized by the presence of packets of immunoglobulins (Russell bodies)

15
Q

This is abdominal fluid from a dog. What is your diagnosis?

A

Probably some sort of carcinoma

We should not be seeing epithelial cells in body cavity effusions

16
Q

Describe the lymphocyte:

A

Reactive

17
Q

What is shown here?

A

Echinocytes

Associated with (1) electrolyte imbalance (2) non-specific disease (3) rattlesnake envenomation

18
Q

This is abdominal fluid from a horse. What type of inflammation is present?

A

Suppurative (neutrophilic) Inflammation

19
Q

What is happening in this picture?

A

Hypersegmentation of neutrophils

Occurs with aging

19
Q

Identify this cast in urine. What is its significance?

A

Waxy cast

**Always of pathologic significance!! Associated with chronic renal disease**

21
Q

This was found in a bone marrow aspirate. Identify.

A

Megakaryocyte

22
Q

Identify a rubricyte in this erythroid maturation sequence:

A
23
Q

Identify the cell and species:

A

Equine eosinophil

24
Q

What is shown here? In which condition would you see these in dogs?

A

Acanthocytes

Hemangiosarcoma in dogs

25
Q

Damn, what’s that? (from a bone marrow aspirate)

A

Mast Cells

26
Q

Identify a rubriblast in this erythroid maturation sequence:

A
27
Q

Observe these immature RBCs. Is the bone marrow responding?

A

Yes

The image shows polychromasia, which is indicative of bone marrow response

28
Q

What is that?!

A

Mesothelial cell

Be careful, these are often confused for malignant epithelial cells!

30
Q

What RBC morphology changes are often seen associated with Mycoplasma haemocanis infection?

A

Spherocytes, agglutination

32
Q

Identify these cells. In which breeds are these hereditary?

A

Stomatocytes

Hereditary in Alaskan Malamutes, Miniature Schnauzers, and Drentse Partrijshond

**Not really any clinical significance to the presence of stomatocytes**

33
Q

What is the most common cause of echinocytes in vitro?

A

Crenation

Due to the slow drying of film. If you only see these in a couple of places, it’s likely that the cause was crenation

35
Q

How would you differentiate Rouleaux formation from agglutination?

A

Add isotonic saline to a drop of blood. If the blood disperses, it is Rouleaux formation!

36
Q

Identify the agent.

A

Anaplasma marginale

Very common tick-borne rickettsial infection worldwide; can cause fatal hemolytic anemia in sheep

37
Q

This is thoracic fluid from a cat. What are these cells?

A

Hepatocytes

Remember to watch out for the liver when aspirating the thorax

39
Q

Which stain is best for identifying Heinz Body formation?

A

New Methylene Blue (NMB) Stain

39
Q

This is a bone marrow aspirate from a cat with myelodysplasia. What is present here?

A

Dysplastic erythroid cells

Note the three rubricytes with dysynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation (arrows) and the more normal-appearing metarubricyte (arrowhead)

41
Q

What is shown in the picture? Name three conditions in the cat that result in this presentation:

A

Heinz Body Formation

Acetaminophen, Propylene glycol, and illness (lymphoma, hyperthyroidism, & diabetes)

**Cats are most susceptible to Heinz Body formation**

43
Q

What causes Heinz Body formation in all species?

A

Ingestion of Onions

44
Q

What is shown here? In which condition would you see these in cats?

A

Acanthocytes

Hepatic lipidosis in cats

45
Q

You see this in a cat. What is it? Why does the background appear granular?

A

Toxoplasmosis

FIP can often give the smear a granular appearance

46
Q

What does Rouleaux formation suggest in small animals?

A

Increased globulin

47
Q

These cells are from a bone marrow aspirate. What type of cells are these?

A

Eosinophils

48
Q

What is this bone marrow aspirate suggestive of?

A

Multiple Myeloma

These plasma cells have eosinophilic cytoplasm that is ruffled (sometimes referred to as flame cells). The cytoplasm is filled with immunoglobulin. Note the variation in cell size, ranging from the large immature plasma cell with loose chromatin (arrow) to the small cells with more condensed chromatin (arrowhead)

49
Q

Describe these immature RBCs. What is the significance of this finding?

A

Polychromasia

Indicates blood loss or blood destruction with subsequent bone marrow response

51
Q

Identify the urine crystal. What is its significance?

A

Calcium oxalate monohydrate

Can be seen in healthy animals (especially horses), but can also be seen in animals with:

  • oxalate urolithiasis
  • hypercalciuric or hyperoxaluric disorders
  • ethylene glycol toxicosis
52
Q

Identify a metaubricyte in this erythroid maturation sequence:

A
53
Q

What is shown here? In which condition would you typically see these?

A

Keratocyte

Iron deficiency anemia

54
Q

Identify this cast in the urine. What is its significance?

A

RBC cast

Significance: tubular hemorrhage (e.g. pyelonephritis)

55
Q

What is a Heinz Body?

A

Oxidatively Denatured Hemoglobin

56
Q

Describe the lymphocyte:

A

with granules

57
Q

What is shown here? In which condition would you typically see these?

A

Eccentrocytes

Shifting of hemoglobin to one side of the cell resulting in clear zone outlines by membrane

Caused by oxidative damage commonly seen with the ingestion of onions in dogs

58
Q

Are spherocytes typically larger or smaller than normal RBCs?

A

Smaller

59
Q

Describe the lymphocyte:

A

Normal

60
Q

What is shown in the image? In which species is this presentation considered normal?

A

Basophilic Stippling

Normal in ruminants

(If you see a significant amount of basophilic stippling in small animals, you should consider lead poisoning)

62
Q

Identify the protozoal organism

A

Babesia spp.

Causes severe disease and hemolytic anemia (may be mistaken for IMHA)

63
Q

What causes Heinz Body formation in sheep?

A

Copper Toxicosis

64
Q

Which of these images represents fat droplets?

A
65
Q

Mycoplasma haemocanis is relatively rare, but certain conditions predispose an animal to infection. What are those conditions?

A

Splenectomy or non-functional spleen

**Agglutination and spherocytes are typically seen with Mycoplasma haemocanis infection also**

66
Q

These cells are from a bone marrow aspirate. What type of cells are these?

A

Osteoclasts

This can be differentiated from a megakaryocyte because the osteoclast nuclei are separate rather than lobulated.

67
Q

Identify the urine crystal. What is its significance?

A

Struvite

This is the most common crystal in dogs and cats and can be found in normal clinical patients

68
Q

What is this a picture of?

A

Distemper Viral Inclusions

69
Q

Which one of these is a transitional cell of the urinary bladder epithelium?

A
70
Q

Identify this presentation. What is its significance?

A

Rouleaux formation

Normal in horses; suggests increased globulin in small animals (inflammatory process)

71
Q

These cells are from a bone marrow aspirate. What type of cells are these?

A

Osteoblasts

72
Q

Identify the prorubricyte in this erythroid maturation sequence:

A
73
Q

What are these?

A

Toxic Neutrophils

Note the increased blue-ness of the cytoplasm and the presence of Dohle Bodies