Yellow-orange coloration of urine indicates the presence of:
Yellow-green/Yellow-brown coloration of urine indicates the presence of:
bilirubin & biliverdin
Red coloration of urine indicates the presence of:
RBCs, Hemoglobin, & Myoglobin
Red-Brown coloration of urine indicates the presence of:
T/F: Horse urine tends to be turbid/cloudy normally
Name a few things that may cause cloudiness or turbidity of urine:
Cells, crystals, bacteria, casts, & lipid droplets
Specific gravity of urine is created by dissolved ions and molecules. USG should only be measured on room temperature urine.
Cold fluids are more dense, and falsely ________ urine specific gravity.
(increase or decrease)
Cold fluids are more dense, and falsely increase urine specific gravity.
Which USG value would indicate adequate concentrating ability in a dog?
Which USG value would indicate adequate concentrating ability in a cat?
Which USG value would indicate adequate concentrating ability in horses & cattle?
Name your top differentials for hyperglycemic glucosuria:
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Drugs (dextrose, glucocorticoids, progesterone)
- Acute Pancreatitis
- Extreme Stress
- Head Trauma
Name your top differentials for normoglycemic glucosuria:
T/F: In dogs, it is normal to expect bilirubinuria before bilirubinemia
**In any other species, bilirubinuria is ABNORMAL**
Bilirubinuria could be due to liver disease, bile duct obstruction, hemolysis, etc.
Ketogenesis produces 3 kinds of “ketone bodies.” Only two of them are true ketones (and are detected by the dipstick). What are the two true ketones?
Acetoacetic acid and acetone
T/F: Ketogenesis produces 3 kinds of ketone bodies: β-hydroxybuterate, acetoacetic acid, & acetone. All three are detected by dipstick.
Only acetoacetic acid & acetone are detected by dipstick.
β-hydroxybuterate is not detected
What is the predominant type of ketone body seen in ruminants?
You should expect to see β-hydroxybuterate in bovine ketosis and pregancy toxemia in ewes
Ketonuria is indicative of excessive/defective lipid or carbohydrate metabolism and is detected prior to ketonemia.
Which two differentials should be high on your list for ketonuria?
Negative energy balance and Diabetic Ketoacidosis [DKA]
Blood is detected on urine dipstick.
T/F: if it is due to hematuria, it will clear with centrifugation
Name a few causes of hematuria:
Trauma, infection, inflammation, infarction, calculi, neoplasia, coagulopathy
What color would you expect the urine to be in the case of hemoglobinuria?
**The urine supernatant will NOT be clear after centrifugation! It will still be red colored!**
What is the normal pH for the urine of dogs & cats?
6.5 - 7.5
What is the normal pH for the urine of horses & cows?
7.5 - 8.5
Urine dipstick analysis is insensitive to Bence Jones proteins and globulins. Which test would you use instead to detect these proteins?
Sulphosalicylic Acid Test
What is the most common type of crystal found in the urine of dogs and cats?
Struvite crystals are large, prism-like crystals (“Coffin lids”) and can be found in clinically normal patients
Upon urinalysis, you note orange-copper colored granules present in small bundles. What type of crystals are these?
After doing urinalyses on many of the animals in your guinea pig and goat farm, you notice the large spherical crystals with radial striations in the urine. What type of crystals are they?
Calcium carbonate crystals are normal in horses, rabbits, guinea pigs, and goats. There are no reports in canine or feline urine
Upon urinalysis of your Miniature Schnauzer, you notice colorless squares that looked like little envelopes. What are these crystals?
Calcium oxalate dihydrate
Which canine breed is predisposed to calcium oxalate urolithiasis?
The presence of renal casts in the urine is referred to as:
T/F: It is normal to see 1 renal cast per low powered field (LPF) when performing a urinalysis
<2/LPF is normal
>2/LPF is abnormal and is indicative of proteinuria of renal or extra-renal disease
T/F: Epithelial casts and fatty casts are a good indicator of the extent of renal injury
They are indicative of active tubular degeneration or necrosis, but are NOT evidence of extent or reversibility of injury
What is the significance of WBC casts in a urine sample?
The presence of WBC casts in a urine sample is indicative of tubular inflammation (e.g. pyelonephritis)
What is the significance of RBC casts in a urine sample?
The presence of RBC casts in a urine sample is indicative of tubular hemorrhage (e.g. pyelonephritis)
T/F: Waxy casts are always of pathologic significance and are associated with chronic renal disease
Which USG range is associated with isosthenuria?
1.008 - 1.012
Which USG range is associated with hyposthenuria?
USG < 1.007
Though rarely seen, which type of crystal are you most likely to find in the urine associated with ethylene glycol toxicosis?
Calcium oxalate monohydrate
What is the top differential for pre-renal azotemia along with ↑BUN?
Upper GI Bleed
What is the top differential for pre-renal azotemia along with ↓ GFR
T/F: In a dehydrated animal with normal renal function, urine volume is decreased and USG is increased
Renal Azotemia implies ___% loss of functioning nephrons
Renal Azotemia implies 75% loss of functioning nephrons
**the remainder undergo functional hypertrophy**
T/F: An animal with azotemia and inappropriately low USG is always in renal failure
T/F: Origin of azotemia may be determined by the USG
T/F: Poluria occurs before azotemia
If your patient has azotemia and isosthenuria, it is safe to assume they have renal disease until proven otherwise. It urine is not concentrated, the cause of azotemia is probably renal.
Which species are an exception to this rule?
Cats can maintain some concentrating capacity with renal failure
What is the clinical significance of decreased CREA?
On a serum protein electrophoresis, which globulin fraction do we find immunoglobulin molecules?
What would you expect to see with regard to albumin and globulin levels in a foal with failure of passive transfer (FPT)?
normal albumin, decreased globulin
T/F: Blood loss (hemorrhage) and protein-losing glomerulopathy are typically characterized by proportional decreases in both albumin & globulin
Blood loss (hemorrhage) and protein-losing enteropathy are both typically characterized by ↓ albumin and ↓ globulin
Where is urea synthesized and what is the precursor molecule?
What does ‘discrete’ mean?
apart or detached from others