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Flashcards in CM-BIM Unit 1 Deck (44):

What does BIM stand for?

Building Information Modeling


What does VDC stand for?

Virtual Design and Construction (synonymous with BIM)


BIM as a Noun:

An electronic, virtual representation of a facility, which in many cases comprises of a 3D representation.


BIM as a Verb:

The process of creating, managing, and using Building Information Models to design a facility, communicate and refine the design, and plan and optimize the construction effort.


Augmented Reality

The ability to see where you are in the model while you physically walk the site.



Flat line images that show length and width of what is drawn.



The combination of height, width, and depth of a structure.



The integration of time (scheduling) into the 3D model.



The integration of cost (and quantities) into the 3D model.



The integration of other aspects into the model. Examples ma include: safety, energy, indoor air quality, lighting, etc.


Parametric Modeling

Object-based rather than line based. Each object is backed by a database of information about its physical and functional characteristics allowing multiple views to be changed automatically.


Spatial Coordination

The ability to coordinate trades digitally before installation takes place in the field. Used to limit the amount of rework necessary.


3 Characteristics of Good Estimating Models

1) Cost Drivers: Systems that have highly variable cost.
2) Efficiency: Modeling Efficiency should be maximized to allow the team to create estimates on multiple design alternatives.
3) Balance Representation of systems


In a model for establishing a conceptual estimate. What two general guidlines should be followed when determining what to model?

1) Identify geometry driven variables (e.g., # floors, # elevators, gross SF, exterior skin qty.)
2) Establish what items need to be modeled vs. what items can be established from a spreadsheet. (Ex.: The different materials of the exterior skin can be established using a spreadsheet. All you need to model is the total SF of the skin and base the components off typical configurations).


In a model for establishing a conceptual estimate. What elements need to be modeled? (3 guidelines)

1) Elements that have a visual impact and need to be considered during decision making.
2) Elements that affect the business function of the building (# of classrooms, #operating rooms, SF rent able space etc.)
3) Elements of paramount importance to ensure constructability.


In a model for establishing a conceptual estimate. What elements should NOT be modeled? (4 Guidelines)

1) Elements that have a known unit cost. These elements do not need to be detailed beyond the level of detailed required to establish the unit cost.
2) Elements for which a fixed cost is known and not variable.
3) Detail elements that are relatively insignificant and are factored into unit prices that do not have an affect on functionality or aesthetics.
4) Elements with small cost impact when different options are evaluated.


What are the two main target criteria for determining the level of usefulness of estimates in the pre-construction process?

1) Level of accuracy of the estimate.
2) The frequency of the estimate.


How does the Frequency of the Estimate affect its usefullness?

The more often the estimates are provided, the smaller and easier the adjustments are for the design team to keep the project within budget.


Would it be sufficient for the design team to provide the contractor with quantity information in tabular form?

No, the contractor needs to see the building to establish the means and methods required to complete the project.


Construction Planning or Scheduling?
Vehicle for work structure decisions



Construction Planning or Scheduling?
Must always be generated first

Construction Plan


Construction Planning or Scheduling?
DOes not have to be as complete as possible



Construction planning or scheduling?
All Project-Related activities are derived from this

Construction Plan


There is no real discussion as to what should be included

Construction Plan


The ___ is how the ___ is communicated to the GC and subcontractors.

The Schedule is how the construction plan is communicated to the GC and the Subcontractors.


What does CPM Schedule Stand for?

Critical Path Method (Actual)
Construction Project Management (Per BIM book for test)


Fundamental 4D Concepts:
Spatial Element

A representation of a building element, such as a door, or a conceptual element such as a room.


Fundamental 4D Concepts:

A task or event in a construction schedule


Fundamental 4D Concepts:
Selection Set

A grouping of spatial elements that are associated with a distinct name and can be addressed by that distinct name. Example: A user selects all first floor columns and groups them into a selection set named "COLUMNS_FLOOR_L02"


Fundamental 4D Concepts:

Associations between spatial elements and activities.


What level of detail is appropriate for the model and the schedule?

Linking a detailed model and schedule can be laborious. The required spatial elements that need to be included in the model and the schedule should be determined before starting the process.


Should I like the construction schedule to the model or should I make a separate schedule to link to the model?

The construction schedule contains many activities that do not correspond to spatial elements in the model (i.e., Notice to Proceed, Submittals, Steel Detailing...etc.). Therefore, it is typically better to create a separate model to link to the model.


Should the schedule or the model be created first?

The schedule should either be created concurrently with the model or from the model. This will ensure that the logic of the construction process is followed in the schedule. Using 4D tools to create a schedule will make the scheduling and planning process more efficient.


What types of activities should be represented in the model and how should they be color coded?

Activities that have clear relationships to spatial elements (easily seen during animation such as columns and slabs). Color coding should be established early one and followed consistently.


Horizontal BIM?

Use of BIM in heavy civil construction


What are some benefits of adding the BIM process to mobile and wireless solutions:

Real-Time Information Retrieval
Improved coordination of construction documents.
Increased speed of delivery
Improved productivity
Increased revenue
Reduced operating costs


What are some challenges to BIM in mobile and wireless solutions:

Very large file sizes for models.
Slow internet connections in the field.
Graphics required for models.


What is Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing is an approach to providing computational solutions to a client by a service provider where significant aspects of storing and processing information are handled by the service provider. Example being where the client can store data and information on a server at an off-site location that can be downloaded from any device with an internet connection.


Cloud Computing Definition:

The use of computer resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network.


Software as a Services (SaaS)

Vendors sell software and services on a subscription basis rather than a one-time transaction.


What is something to be wary of when working with a vendor on an SaaS basis?

The vendor can easily monopolize the rights to the project software, project data, and limit the clients ability to interface with other applications and software for collaborating and creating federated models. Always be sure to read the fine print in the agreement to make sure you are getting what you want out of the service.


3 Benefits of BIM in the Cloud

1) All participants have constant access to current models.
2) Ability to track user actions because users are required to sign in to access the data.
3) Computationally intense tasks can be performed in the cloud where the software & hardware better set up for large data usage.


3 Challenges of BIM in the Cloud

1) BIM has high computational requirements for graphics-related tasks which typically have to be performed on the client computer.
2) Permanent online connectivitiy is required, this can be challenge in the field depending on conditions.
3) In the case of Web browsers as user interfaces, the ability to create rich and expressive user interaction is challenging (such as right-click function.)


Questions that need to be understood and clarified when using cloud computing

Who owns the data stored and managed in the Cloud?
What happens in case of data loss in the Cloud?
How can the data and information stored and manged in the cloud be used by the Client and Vendor?
What happens to the data in the Cloud if the subscription for the services is ended?
Can the service provider modify its services?
Can prices for SaaS be changed in the future?