Flashcards in CM-BIM Unit 3 Deck (71):
What does a 4D Model include?
Integration of time (scheduling) into the 3D Model.
What does a 5D Model include?
Integration of Cost (and quantities) into the 3D Model.
Another Term for Constructibility Review
Clash Detection or Spacial Coordination
When two components physically overlap
Where components violate space constraints imposed by code or design limitations without physical overlap.
BIM Addendum was created by...
Agreements between Owner, AE & Prime Contractors.
Subcontracts, Consulting Agreements, 3rd party contracts.
If there is an inconsistency between the BIM addendum and the Governing Contracts, which prevails?
BIM Addendum per BIM Addendum 1.11
"A three-dimensional representation in electronic format of building elements representing solid objects with true-to-scale spatial relationships and dimensions. A Model may include additional information and data." - BIM Addendum 2.14
"Those aspects of the Project that (a) are to be modeled as specified in the BIM Execution Plan prepared pursuant to this Addendum and (b) have reached the stage of completion that would customarily be expressed by the Architect/Engineer in two-dimensional Construction Documents" - BIM Addendum 2.6
"A Model consisting of coordinated structural, architectural, MEP, and other Design Models designated in the BIM Execution Plan to be produced by the design team." - BIM Addendum 2.9
'Full Design Model'
"A Model that (a) consists of those aspects of the Project that are to be modeled as specified in the BIM Execution Plan prepared pursuant to this Addendum; (b) utilizes data imported from the Design Model or, if none, from a designer's Construction Documents; and (c) contains the equivalent of shop drawings and other information useful for construction." - BIM Addendum 2.2
"A Model consisting of the federation of a Full Design Model and one or more Construction Models designated in the BIM Execution Plan to be produced by Project Participants." - BIM Addendum 2.15
"A Model consisting of linked but distinct component Models, drawings derived from Models, texts, and other data sources that do not lose their identity or integrity by being so linked, so that a change to one component Model in a Federated Model does not create a change in another component Model in that Federated Model." - BIM Addendum 2.8
- Full Design Model and Sustainability Analysis
- Construction Model and Constructability Analysis
- Arch Model, Structural Model, 4D and 5D Analysis
All parties that have Governing or Affiliated Contracts
A project participant that makes a contribution, in other words a participant who actively adds data, information or other content, and derives information from project models.
What are some roles and responsibilities of the Information Manger (IM)
- Party responsible for coordinating BIM Information Managment
- Create, Delete, Modify and maintain users
- Assign, Delete and Modify Access Rights to users
- Apply security controls to restrict user access so that each user can modify their related information only.
- Track data entries to the model.
- Back-Up and Restore Data
- All around model security to prevent attacks and errors.
BIM Is Parametric, what does this mean?
When an object is modified in one model view, the parametric process inherent in the modeling software will automatically update all over views of that particular object to reflect the change.
Having a contractual relationship between parties. The lack of privity between the contractor and the designer in the typical DBB delivery method is what allows the contractor to assert design defect claims to the owner.
Court Ruling that states: "if the Contractor is bound to build according to plans and specifications prepared by the Owner, the contractor will not be responsible for the consequences of defects in the project plans and specifications."
A duty undertaken by one party to make good a loss, damage, or liability incurred by another party.
A contract provision that shifts the economic consequences of liability from one party to another, such that the indemnitor agrees to answer for the harm suffered by the indemnitee, creates indemnity.
A party who answers for harm suffered by the indemnitee.
A party protected by another party. Indemnitor answers for harm suffered by indemnitee.
Duty of Ordinary Care for Design Professionals
A design professional is expected to exercise the same level of care that a reasonably prudent professional in that same geographic area would exercise when confronted with similar facts and circumstances.
Where are the professional duties of care and responsibilities typically described for design professionals?
The Governing Contract standard of care and indemnity provisions.
Is Risk Shifting and Privity of the Governing Contracts changed by BIM?
No, unless specifically changed required in the project contract or BIM Addendum.
With a lack of standard modeling practices what requirements need to be clearly defined?
Deliverable's and their contents.
Electronic Communications Protocols Addendum
What does IAI stand for and what is their purpose?
International Alliance for Interoperability, which help bridge interoperability gaps that hinder data sharing. Now called buildingSMART alliance.
What are IFCs?
Industry Foundation Clases which create the IAIs to help with interoperability challenges. They are not fully developed at this time however.
In reference to BIM, what are Interoperability challenges?
The issues that arise from various modeling softwares not communicating and sharing data completely. Information can be lost in conversions.
Computer Assisted Virtual Environment
All contributors meeting and modeling at the same location.
Open File Format
Non-Proprietary protocols and data structure that support the exchange or joint use of digital information by differing software tools.
Proprietary File Format
Protocols and Data structures that are specific to the software application of a particular vendor, with the access to those formats being controlled entirely by that vendor. These formats do not support the exchange or joint use of digital information by differing software tools
BIM Execution Plan Phase I
BIM Goal Indentification:
Identify the reasons they want to use BIM and articulate possible modeling goals and deliverable, taking into consideration the method of project delivery chosen for the project and any limitations imposed by that delivery process.
BIM Execution Plan Phase II
Determine Model Content and Deliverable Schedules:
Discuss expected content of each Model that will be created and the process by which the model(s) will be developed, which often includes preparation of a schedule of deliverables.
BIM Execution Plan Phase III
Setting Mode Granularity and Quality Control Standards:
Initial decisions drive determinations about use of Models as Contract Documents, the need for 2D details to supplement Models, the level of granularity or dimensional accuracy needed from the Models, and the overall quality control needed for Contributions to Models.
BIM Execution Plan Phase IV
Developing a Model information Exchange Process and Protocols:
When the end products of the BIM process have been fully articulated, an entire procedure and protocol infrastructure for information exchange is developed, including establishing responsibilities for each duty and deliverable, as well as the technology requirements for BIM use on the project.
Commercially valuable, intanginble asset, such as a copyright, trademark, or patent. In Construction:
-Design Records created for the project (copyright)
-Software that provides project website mgmt (copyright)
-Company Logo (Trademark)
-Unique materials, equipment, and components used for construction of a building (patent)
-Processes that use special forms, techniques, or sequences to speed completion of construction (patent).
intellectual property rights that protect words, names, symbols, sounds, or colors that distinguish goods and services from those manufactured or sold by others and indicated the source of goods.
Property rights granted for original inventions to limit others from making, using, or selling the invention. Use of patented high tech materials and processes, such as bonding agents, sealants, and chemicals to speed up material installation. A contractor may need to become a licensed representative to use certain patented products, but often the simpler purchase of materials extends a license to use that product.
Protects works of authorship, such as writings, music, and works of art that have been tangibly expresed or reduced to a fixed form. Architectural work, which includes the design of a building embodied by design records and also the building structure iteself, is protected by The Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act.
What is an author in relation to intellectual property rights? What is the difference from a co-author?
The author is the party who creates intellectual property. When there are more than one author, the parties are co-authors of the intellectual propert.
What is a work for hire?
A work created by an author, employed by another under a work relationship or a written agreement, who conveys the ownership of the intellectual property to the employer either before or after completion of the work.
What is Derivative Work?
A derivative work is a work that is taken, translated, adapted, or in some way further developed from an already copyrighted work. This subsequent work enjoys copyright on the additional work only. The original work is still under the original copyright. A common example being a schedule or estimate derived from a model authored by another.
Copyright infringement occurs when a party wrongfully uses intellectual property or proprietary data from copyrighted work without permission.
What are the possible remedies for copyright infringement in the US?
1) Stop wrongful use in a court proceeding for injunction.
2) Infirnger will be liable for damages, lost profits, costs and attorney fees of copyright owner.
3) Infringer can be required to forfeit any profits derived from wrongful use and pay court-determined statutory damages.
Rather than transfer ownership, copyright owners can grant a license authorizing the use of their intellectual property while continuing to retain ownership of the work and data.
A license granted by a copyright owner for use to one party while keeping the ability to grant others the same right.
3 Key Points of Contribution Ownership
1) Contributors own intellectual rights to their contributions.
2) That the contributor is the owner of all copyrights in all of the contributors contributions, or the contributor is licensed to use third party copyrights.
3) Contributor indemnifies all other parties from 3rd party claims of infringement.
3 Key Points to Contribution Licenses
1) BIM Addendum creates non-exclusive licenses because multiple parties need to use the same copyrighted designs and information. The same goes for affiliated contracts under general contracts
2) Each party retains copyright ownership of their contributions.
3) Parties that contribute to or use the project model are not co-authors other than the extent of their contribution.
A decision by a court of law or arbitration about whether an owner owes payment.
Does the BIM Addendum or Governing Contracts govern the issue of the owner's use of the Full Design Model
Per BIM Addendum 6.7, how is the issue of Full Design Model Owner Use addressed?
The owner's non-exclusive license to reproduce, distribute, display or otherwise use the contributions and models shall not be limited to this project unless the owner fails to make payments.
This paragraph may need amended based on governing contract language.
What is model archiving?
Maintaining an electronic copy of all contributions along with the correct version of the authoring software to ensure accuracy of information for the time of the project.
What does Commercial General Liability Insurance Cover?
Protects the insured against risk of accidental physical injury to persons or property arising from negligence in performance of contracted work operations on a project.
Commercial Gen. Liability Insurance is an Occurrence Basis Insurance, what does that mean?
A type of policy that provides if the insured harms persons or property, and causes a loss, that occurs during the policy period, the insurance carrier will pay for that loss even if the claim is first made after the end of that policy period.
According to the BIM Addendum, is merely contributing to a model intended to constitute a professional design service?
What does Excess or Umbrella Policy mean?
They are each supplemental policies that increase the total amount covered for the same kids of losses covered under another policy.
Professional Liability Insurance & Errors and Omissions Insurance
Insurance policies that protect design professionals from damages due to negligence, non-intentional errors and omissions, sometimes including BIM, and in cases where BIM is covered, often provides coverage first before other policies that may cover BIM.
E&O Insurance is a Claims-Made Insurance Policy, what does that mean? What is Tail Coverage?
Claims-Made insurance policies only cover claims the insured becomes aware of during the coverage period. The policies coverage ends at the end of the policy period. If the same coverage is not renewed, Tail Coverage is an insurance product that can be purchased to provide coverage over an extended period.
What is Builder's Risk Insurance?
Insurance policy that covers risks associated with unexpected losses to work during construction such as weather-related damage, flood, theft, and collapse of partially completed structure. Often covers materials and equipment ordered for, in transit to, or delivered to the project site before the project owner actually owns it.
What is Design-Build Insurance?
An Insurance product that covers negligence in both design and construction. Intended to combine CGL & Professional Liability insurances into one product to prevent the uncovered gap between the independent products.
What is OCIP, CCIP, and Wrap-Up Insurance?
OCIP - Owner-Controlled Insurance Policy
CCIP - Contractor-Controlled Insurance Policy
Wrap-Up insurance is a specialty coverage intended to avoid gaps between the 3 major coverage's. This may reduce insurance premiums by eliminating overlap of coverage by bringing all parties' insurances under one group.
What is Valuable Papers Insurance
An insurance product that protects against loss or damages to project records by covering costs of replacing or recreating records. This insurance should have a flow-down clause requiring those retained by primary contracting parties to maintain the same coverage. Valuable Papers coverage is required by section 5.7 of the BIM Addendum.
What are the typical limitations to Valuable Papers Insurance
Typical Items not Covered include:
-Consequential damages arising from damaged or lost records.
-Loss or damage by electrical or magnetic -destruction of electronic records.
-May not cover loss of digital records whatsoever.
What does Electronic Data Processing and Security Coverage Typically Protect Against?
-Improperly denying access to an individual who is supposed to have rights to access a project website.
-Infecting such individuals computer with a virus
-Losing or damaging data maintained electronically.