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Flashcards in CNS Deck (19)
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1

What is homonymous hemianopia?

Hemianopic visual field loss on the same side of both eyes
Posterior cerebral artery occlusion
Lesions from the optic tract to visual cortex

2

What is bitemporal hemianopia?

Partial blindness where vision is missing in the outer half of both the right and left visual field
Lesions of the optic chiasm (tumours mid-optic chiasm)

3

What does the anterior cerebral artery supply?

Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere until the peri-occipital sulcus

4

Where does the middle cerebral artery supply?

2/3 of the lateral surface of the brain
Central branches supply the corpus striatum, thalamus and internal capsule

5

Where does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

Corpus callosum
Cortex of occipital and temporal lobes
Central branches supply the optic radiation, subthalamic nucleus and thalamus

6

Which arteries are the brainstem and cerebellum supplied by?

Vertebral and basilar

7

CN I functions

Olfactory
Special sensory: smell from nasal mucosa

8

CN II functions

Optic
Special sensory: vision from retina

9

CN III functions

Oculomotor
Somatic motor: medial, superior, inferior rectus muscles, inferior oblique
Visceral motor: pupil constriction

10

CN IV functions

Trochlear
Somatic motor: superior oblique extra-ocular muscle

11

CN V functions

Trigeminal
Opthalmic V1: sensory superior 1/3 of face + cornea
Maxillary V2: sensory median 1/3 of face
Mandibular V3: sensory mandible + lower lip, motor=masseter & pterygoids/muscles of mastication

12

CN VI functions

Abducent
Somatic motor: lateral rectus extra-ocular

13

CN VII functions

Facial
Somatic motor: muscles of facial expression
Visceral motor: submandibular/sublingual glands, lacrimal glands
Special sensory: taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
General sensory: skin of external acoustic meatus

14

CN VIII functions

Vestibulocochlear
Special sensory: hearing (vestibular) and balance (cochlear)

15

CN IX functions

Glossopharyngeal
Somatic motor: stylopharyngeus
Visceral motor: parotid gland
Special sensory: posterior 1/3 of tongue
General sensory: external ear and pharynx sensation
Visceral sensory: visceral feedback from carotid body

16

CN X functions

Vagus
Somatic motor: palatal/laryngeal/pharyngeal muscles of swallowing
Visceral motor: parasympathetic innervation to smooth muscles of the trachea, bronchi, digestive tract, heart
Visceral sensory: sensation from trachea, bronchi, digestive tract, heart
Special sensory: taste from epiglottis/palate
General sensory: sensation from auricle and external acoustic meatus

17

CN XI functions

Accessory
Motor: sternocleidomastoid & trapezius

18

CN XII functions

Hypoglossal
Intrinsic/extrinsic muscles of the tongue

19

CN nuclei

CN I: olfactory epithelium
CN II: retinal ganglion cells
CN III & IV: midbrain
CN V, VI, VII: pons
CN VIII: vestibular/spinal ganglion
CN IX, X, XII: medulla
CN XI: spinal cord