Flashcards in CNS Infxn Deck (63):
Who are at risk for CNS infxn?
How is the brain protected?
Who is at HIGHEST risk for CNS infxn?
infants b/c they do not have a fully developed BBB
How can bacteria be spread?
thin bone (sinus)
veins (facial infxn)
What is baceterial meningitis?
bacterial infxn of the arachnoid, subarachnoid, CSF
Bacterial meningitis - sx?
Bacterial meningitis - PE?
*anything that stretches the dura
Why is there a stiff neck with bacterial meningitis?
they cannot move the neck b/c of dura inflammed
Who is at risk of getting bacterial meningitis?
YA who live in close areas (colleges students dorming)
Vacciniation for bacterial meningitis?
Bacterial meningitis - dx?
Bacterial meningitis - CSF labs?
high CSF protein
*bacteria eats glucose, poops proteins
Bacterial meningitis - CSF culture? infants, children, adults?
infants- E coli, B strep
Children and adults: s. pneumonia, neisseria meningitisis*, H influ* (vaccine)
Bacterial meningitis - tx?
ASAP W/ BROAD ABX!!
Epidural abscess - cx?
infxn from neighboring areas
Epidural abscess - leads to?
TCB of vertebral column
Subdural abscess/subdural empyema - cx?
spread of bacterial infxn from sinuses/middle ear
Spinal empymea - leads to?
compression of spinal cord - permenant damage
Intracranial subdural/epidural empyema - leads to?
increase in ICP
(vomiting, diplopia, papilledema)
Subdural abscess/empyema- tx?
1) surgical 2) abx IV
*b/c of compression, there is low blood circulation, so abx cannot get there
Brain abscess - cx?
bacterial spread from sinus/middle ear infxn
Brain abscess - sx?
increased ICP - vomit, nausea, papilledema
mental status changes
Brain abscess - dx?
CT/MRI - DO NOT DO LP!! (CAN CX HEMORRHAGE)
Brain abscess - tx?
1) surgical 2) IV abx
CNS spirochete infection?
CNS spirochete infxn - syphilis result?
CNS spirochete infxn -syphilis sx?
General paresis of the insane
result of untreated syphilis
infects the posterior dorsal column - affects vibration and propioception
pain of the sensory
General paresis of the insane?
behavior mood changes in syphilis infxted pts
Lyme dz - bug?
tick borne illness d/t borrelia burgodferi
Lyme dz - leads to?
neurologic manifestions (neuropathy, meningitis)
How to tx syphilis?
CNS viral - cx?
CNS viral pathophys?
immune response to viral infxn can lead to tissue damage
more damage from T cell and potent cytokines
Aseptic meningitis - sx?
Aseptic meningitis - cx?
maybe theratpuetic drug
Aseptic meningitis vs bacterial meningitis - CSF labs?
CSF culture: negative
CSF: incr WBC/pleocytosis (same), elevated protein (same) but normal glucose
infxn of CNS neurons and glial cells
Viral encephalitis - cx?
secondary (common): viral infxn (pneumonia, enteritis)
primary (rare): rabies
Viral encephalitis - results?
confusion --> stupor --> seizures --> focal neurological defects --> coma --> death
Herpes simplex encephalitis - cx?
HSV I (cold sores)
HSV II (herpes)
primary infxn or viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglion that travels to the brain
Herpes simplex encephalitis - most common cx?
Herpes simplex encephalitis - sx?
Herpes simplex encephalitis - what lobe is affected, role in sx?
frontal: personality changes, dementia, hallucination
Herpes simplex encephalitis - cx in infants?
to avoid: C section instead of vaginal birth (infants can get it easier b/c no BBB)
Herpes simplex encephalitis - CSF?
Herpes simplex encephalitis - dx?
rare in adults
CMV encephalitis - population?
immunocompromised (HIV pts)
directly infects the CNS
CNS arthropod borne virus?
abnormal form of neuron glycoprotein --> amyloid (neuron degeneration)
confined to gray matter --> spongiform encephalopathy
Prion dz - sx?
prominent personality changes
Prion dz types?
Creutzfeldt Jakob (CJD)
Bonvein Spoinform encephalopathy (mad cow)
Prion dz - dx?
brain bx postmortem - r/o other dz
CNS fungal infxn - popuatoin?
AIDs (loss of normla T cells)
CNS fungal infxn - bugs?
Mycobacterial infxn - sx?
Primary ameobic meningoencephalitis infxn?
HIGH MORTALITY RATE
PAM - cx?
free-living ameoba (naegleria flowerir) - lives in freshwater and hot springs
PAM - population?
young men playing in American SW waters