Flashcards in CNS Pathology Deck (10):
Types of cerebral edema.
Vasogenic: increased vascular permeability
-localized or generalized
Cytotoxic: increased intracellular fluid
-generalized insults (hypoxia)
-neuronal, glial, or endothelial cell
Dandy Walker malformation.
Enlarged posterior fossa
Absent or rudimentary cerebellar vermis
Greatly dilated 4th ventricle represented as a cyst-like structure
Bulging of occipital bone
What is Arnold Chiari type II often associated with?
What is lost and what is spared in syringomyeloma?
Lost: thermal and painful sensation
Spared: tactile, joint position, and vibration
Mutations of tuberous sclerosis complex.
TSC1 encodes hamartin
TSC2 encodes tuberin
Both proteins bind forming a complex that blocks the kinase mTOR leading to negative control do cell proliferation and high protein synthesis (voluminous cytoplasm)
Features of tuberous sclerosis complex including typical triad presentation.
-facial angiofinromas, hypomelanotic macules, shagreen patch, hamartomas, cardiac rhabdmyomas & multiple retinal nodular hamartomas
Minor: pits in enamel and hamartomatous rectal polyps
Triad: angiofibromas, epilepsy,a me developmental delay
Genetics and immunology of multiple sclerosis.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL2 and IL7 receptors
CD4+ TH1 activate macrophages
TH17 activate leukocytes causing demyelination
-reactive against self myelin antigens
Morphology of MS.
-macrophages contain PAS and debris
-depletion of oligodentrocytes
-little to no myelin left
-border of normal and affected white matter is not sharply delineated
Clinical features of MS.
IgG in CSF
Pins and needles, numbness, pain