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Flashcards in WBCs And Lymph Nodes Deck (11):

What is ineffective in myelodysplastic syndrome?

Maturation defects associated with ineffective hematopoiesis seen in people 60+. Can be idiopathic or therapy related MDS (tMDS) from prior chemo.


What is seen in the peripheral smear and bone marrow of MDS?

Hypogranular granulocytes
Pelger-Huet (bilobed neutrophils)
Ringed sideroblasts and megalobastoid cells (BM)
Pawn ball megakaryocyte
<20% myoblasts in BM


What are the common translocations seen in AML?

t(15;17) in M3
inv 16 in M4
t(8;21) in M2
AML following MDS


What are the features of M3 (AML)?

Ages 15-59; young male adults
Auer rods
Bleeding tendencies; risk of DIC
t(15:17) fusion gene of RAR-alpha and PML
FLT3 mutation
Responds to all trans retinoic acid


What are the features of M5 (AML)?

Non-specific esterase
Any age
Gum hypertrophy
Bleeding tendencies
CNS involvement


Features of CML

Adults 25-60 years
Myeloproliferative disorder
Philadelphia chromosome (ABL and BCR)
WBC more than 100,000
Platelets initially high followed by thrombocytopenia
Anemia, basophillia
Hyper cellular bone marrow
Massive splenomegaly
Low LAP score
Treat with imatinib mesylate


Features of polycythemia vera.

Neoplasm of multipotent myeloid stem cell
Myeloproliferative disorder
JAK2 mutation
Decreased erythropoietin
Hyoercellular BM
Hyperuricemia (gout)
Increased viscosity


Features of primary myelofibrosis.

Myeloproliferative disorder
>50 years
Obliterative marrow fibrosis, suppression of hematopoiesis, extra medullary hematopoiesis
JAK2 mutation
Extensive deposition of collagen and reticulin
Neoplastic megakaryocytes release PDGF SND TGFbeta
Tear drop RBC (dacrocyte)
Nucleated RBC
Fatigue, night sweats, anemia, splenomegaly


Features of essential thrombocytosis.

Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder
JAK2 mutation - proliferation of platelets
Basophillia, thrombocytosis, and leukocytosis
Abnormal bleeding time
Portal and hepatic vein thrombosis
Erythromyalgia: intense burning or throbbing pain of hands and feet induce by exercise


Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

Proliferation of immature langerhans cells
Birbeck granules on EM (racquet shaped structures)
Multifocal multisystem, Hand-Schuller, eosinophilic granuloma


Common translocation in follicular lymphoma.

14;18 - BCL2

CD19, 20, 10

Can transform into diffuse large B cell lymphoma