Co-ordinating Immune Response Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Co-ordinating Immune Response Deck (19):

Describe the changes in microorganism levels following the duration of an infection

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Describe the histological structure of healthy skin

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Describe the basic structure of a lymph node, with reference to the T cell area and B cell area 

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What happens to skin following inflammatory response? 

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In initial immune response which complement pathways are activated? 

- Alternate or Lectin but not classical


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What happens when a phagocyte comes into contact with a bacteria? 

1. Bacterial binding to endocytic receptors of macrophages induce their engulfment and degradation.

2. Bacterial components binding to signaling receptors of macrophages induce the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. 

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What are the consequences of cytokine influence on the surrounding vasculature? 

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Where do phagocytic cells come from? 

- Neutrophils travel to and enter the infected tissue, where they engulf and kill bacteria. The neutrophils die in the tissue and are engulfed and degraded by macrophages. 

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Describe cellular traffic in the lymph node draining an infection

- Information transmitted via afferent lymphatic vessels.

Leave through efferent lymphatics. 

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Explain the role of dendritic cells in T cell responses..

- Specialised dendritic cells are required to turn on T cell responses 

- They can capture and process antigen

- They can migrate from peripheral tissues

- They have MHC Classs II molecules

- They can provide 'costimulation' - a second signal required to activate T cells 

Dendritic cells can also sense the environment: 

They have a range of PRR, including TLRs

- They make a range of cytokines to influence T cell differentiation

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What is the process by which T cells enter the lymph node and generate into effector cells? 

- T cells enter lymph node across high endothelial venules in the cortex. 

- T cells monitor antigen presented by macrophages and dendritic cells.

- T cells that do not encounter specific antigen leave lymph nodes through lymphatics.

- T cells that encounter specific antigen proliferate and differentiate into effector cells.

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How are naieve T cells stimulated? 

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Why do we get swollen lymph nodes? 

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How are Th1 and Th2 cells created? 

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How are CD8, CD4 cells created? 

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How are B cells created? 

1. Recirculating B cells enter lymphoid organs through high endothelial venules and migrate to the primary follicle. 

2. Antigen-specific B cells are trapped at the border between the T zone and the follice.

3. Proliferating B cells form a primary focus: some B cells migrate to medullary cords and secrete antibodies.

4. Several B cells migrate into a nearby follicle forming a germinal center where rapid proliferation and somatic mutation can occur.

5. Somatically mutated B cells that retain the capacity to bind antigen, survive, whilst other B cells, die. 

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Label the germinal centres of a lymph node 

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How do B cells die? 

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When do most T effector cells die? 

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