Flashcards in Cognition Deck (88):
Psychological concepts and processes associated with memory and their relationship to behaviour. “higher” mental processes such as thinking, conceptualising, memory, reasoning etc
Structures and processes involved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information. Means by which we draw on our past experiences to use this information in the present.
Multi Store Model (Atkinson and Shriffren)
Proposed that memory consisted of three stores: a sensory register, STM and LTM.
What does the multi store model consist of?
- Capacity: how much information can be stored
- Function: what is done with the stored information
- Duration: period of time information can last in the memory stores
Capacity, Function, Duration of STM
30 seconds, 7+-2, holds info for further processing/rehearsal and is mainly auditory.
STM is thoughts, words and images are available for decision making and problem solving
Capacity, Function, Duration of LTM
infinite, infinite, ”permanent” store of all knowledge/ mainly semantic but can be auditory and visual.
Capacity, Function, Duration of SM
Iconic < 1000ms and Echoic < ½ sec
Limited: info competes for attention
Relay sensory info to attentional centre. Stores all five senses in specific registers
Memory retained for short periods of time (less than 5 seconds), step brain chooses to determine what is important (subconscious)
What is iconic memory?
Temporarily sores sensory info of a visual nature
What is echoic memory?
Temporarily stores sensory info of an auditory nature
SM - STM -LTM
Information is encoded from SM to STM only is attended to by sense organs. STM is transferred to LTM through rehearsal where it is 'stored' and can be retrieved
changing information into a form in which the brain is able to store it (must attend to the info)
retaining information in the memory so it can be used later
the ability to locate and recover previously stored information
How is memory mentally represented?
memory is a psychological version of the original sound, thought, object or concept
Brown Peterson Technique
- Used to test function of rehearsal
- involving an interference/prevention of rehearsal thus decays retained info in STM and info successfully transferred to LTM
How can you transfer info from STM to LTM (Types of Rehearsal)
Maintenance rehearsal, Elaborative rehearsal and chunking
meaningless rote repetition of material to be remembered (least effective)
applying meaning to new words in order to retain them in memory (most effective)
material is combined into larger/meaningful group
What is the Information Processing Model
Atkinson and Shriffren suggested that memory is made up of a series of stores - a limited capacity + central hard drive (analogy of computer).
Explains how processes such as sensation, perception, memory are controlled.
Baddley and Hitch's Working Memory Model 1974
- believes STM proposed by Multi Store Model is to simple
- believes STM consists of two slave systems STM maintenance of info and one central executive responsible for organising information and coordinating the slave systems
What are Baddley and Hitch's 4 parts of the STM
Central executive, Phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad, Episodic buffer
- boss of STM
- controls/coordinates the slave systems + relates them to LTM
- controls attention
- sends incoming info to relevant components and stores all sensory info
- enables the STMS to selectively attend to some stimuli and ignore others when 2 activities comes into conflict ie car/phone
- slave system to CE
- stores, displays and manipulates visual and spatial information held in LTM
- Inner eye
- ie spatial layout of house held in LTM and can be retrieved/displayed on sketchpad.
Phonological loop + 2 parts
- slave system to CE
- deals with spoken and written material (auditory nature)
- Phonological Store – processes incoming information/ holds auditory info for 1/2 seconds. Spoken words enter direct but written must be converted to ACS first.
- Articulatory control process -stores/plans speech production, inner voice rehearsing info (remembering telephone number)
- Links information across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial and verbal
- Links visual/auditory info with experiences in LTM
- Links LTM to CE
- integrates info from iconic and echoic memory
What are the predictions of the STM Model
- if 2 tasks make use of the same component they cannot be performed together
- if two make use of different components they can be performed together
Two areas of LTM
- Procedural memory
- declarative memory
Procedural memory/ implicit
the way you do things unconsciously/ automatically; the “how to” of memory ie riding bike
Declarative memory/explicit + 2 types
- requires conscious effort, the “what of memory”
- Episodic: memory of your own set of autobiographical events/personal experiences
- Semantic: factual knowledge possessed about the outside world an encyclopaedia of memory.
What are the 3 R's
Recall, Recognition and Relearning
Recall + 2 types
being able to access the information without being cued
1) Free recall: is memory without prompting ie types of atoms.
2)Cued recall: is when aided by relevant information, ie neutron electron and ___?
involves identifying information after experiencing it again, e.g multiple choice questions
involves relearning information that has been previously learned. Makes it easier to remember / recall info in the future and can improve the strength of our memories.
If not relearnt will make recall less free and automatic
a failure to access information that had previously been stored in memory
- caused by range of different deficiencies in encoding, storage and retrieval.
- ie information stored in STM, was incorrectly heard (encoding problem), or not rehearsed enough and therefore is incomplete in LTM.
Retrieval Failure Theory + Cue dependant forgetting
forgetting occurs because of a failure to use the right, correct, or appropriate cues at a certain time. —> increased by rehearsal and cues.
Cue dependant forgetting “need cues to remember” —> actually in memory it just can’t be accessed.
- When two pieces of info are similar it leads to a situation called “interference” causing us to forget the difference
- Old or new info produce confusion or competition and as a consequence blocks effective retrieval.
- Proactive and Retroactive
interference of old memories on the retrieval of new info
new info interferes with the ability to remember old information
- self protection defence; strong desire to forget certain things because the memory is either too traumatic, disturbing, anxiety-provoking or upsetting
- Repression and Suppression
What is Repression
keeping distressing (or unpleasant) thoughts buried in the unconscious (un)
What is Suppression
deliberate effort to keep distressing thoughts out of conscious awareness (con)
- Forgetting occurs because the memory trace (initially formed at learning) tends to gradually fade, or decay, over time
- Loss of info in SM and STM via displacement
- Forgetting (amnesia or memory loss) occurs due to some brain damage
- damage to different areas leads to differing forms of memory loss
What is Learning?
a relatively permanent change, often of behaviour, that occurs as a result of experience.
the association made by the learner between a stimulus and a response
any variable present in the environment that may trigger a response
an action or behaviour that is exhibited
- stimulus-response theory
- is an association forming between two stimuli, (not normally associated with the response) such that the appearance of that stimulus alone results in the response behaviour.
Neutral Stimulus (NS
any stimulus that produces no relevant responses prior to the classical conditioning process (by association)
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
any stimulus that consistently leads to a reflexive response
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
a previously neutral response that has become associated with stimulus by which it was not previously caused by the classical conditioning process
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
a unlearned, reflexive and involuntary response to a stimulus
Conditioned Response (CR)
a reflexive and involuntary response that has become associated with a stimulus by which it was not previously caused during classical conditioning.
- changing of behaviour by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response
Difference between Classical and Operant Conditioning
Whilst classical focuses on changing voluntary behaviours through stimulus, operant conditioning is learning explained by consequences
a consequence that causes behaviour to occur more often. The goal of reinforcement is to strengthen the behaviour and increase the likelihood that it will occur again in the future.
behaviour increases when it is followed by a pleasant reward
behaviour increases when it is followed by the removal of an unpleasant reward
is a consequence that causes behaviour to occur less frequently
behaviour decreases if an negative consequence is given after the behaviour
behaviour decreases if a pleasant stimulus is removed after the unwanted behaviour
The environment causes behaviour and learning, and behaviour can change the environment
Factors involved in Observational Learning
- attention (Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention)
- retention(Observers must be able to remember what was happening around them)
- reproduction (must be capable (physically and psychologically) of reproducing act)
- Motivation (only perform if hey have motivation to do so which is enhanced by reinforcement)
Schedules of Reinforcement
Is basically a rule stating which instances of a behaviour will be reinforced ie behaviour might be reinforced every time it occurs or not at all. Can dramatically change the rate and strength.
Continuous Reinforcement Schedules
- the desired behaviour is reinforced every single time it occurs
- best used during the initial stages of learning in order to create a strong association between the behaviour and the response
ie teaching dog to shake, give treat every time
- once response attached can change to partial reinforcement
Partial Reinforcement Schedules
- response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses
- a high, steady rate of responding
-E.g giving a reward to a rat after it presses a bar five times.
Variable Ratio Schedule
- occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses
- produces high steady rate of responding
- giving reward to a rat after one bar press, again after four bar presses, and a third reward after two bar presses. (gambling)
Fixed Interval Schedule:
- first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed
- causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but slower responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer
- E.g giving a rat a reward for the first bar press after a 30-second interval has elapsed.
Variable Interval Schedule
- occurs when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed
- produces a slow, steady rate of response
- E.g giving reward to a rat after the first bar press following a one-minute interval, another for the first response following a five-minute interval, etc
Bobo Doll Experiment
36 boys and 36 girls between 3 and 6 years old
The first experimental group 24 children exposed to aggressive behaviour, whilst the second experimental group of 24 was exposed to non-aggressive model behaviour
Then divided based on sex and shown opposite sex models
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
- theory emphasises Observational Learning
- believed Learning was a function of observing, retaining and replicating behaviour observed in others
- Modelling: when one observes the behaviour and consequences of another to influence their own thoughts, actions and feelings
Bobo Doll Experiment Findings
Children exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to act in a physically aggressive manner
Boys had more aggression when exposed to aggressive male models than female models
Glanzer and Cunitz Study Results
- showed Serial position effect; tend to remember the first few and last few words than those in middle of a list
- supports existence of seperate LTM/STM
- words early on put in LTM (primacy) as time to rehearse and words later put in STM (recency)
Evaluation of Glanzer and Cunitz
- provides evidence support distinction of LTM/STM in terms of encoding/function/duration
- account for primacy & recency effects.
- oversimplified; suggests that LTM and STM operate in a single unitary store
- Rehearsal far to simple explanation from info in STM to LTM ie we can still recall information we didn’t rehearse (swimming) but not what we have (study notes)
KF Case Study
- supports the STM Model
- suffered brain damage from a motorcycle effected STM
- verbal info effected, visual unaffected
- shows seperate STM parts for visual (VSS) and auditory (PL)
Baddley and Hitch Aim and Method
to investigate if participants can use different parts of WM at the same time
Had to perform two tasks at once. One was a digit span task asking them to repeat a list of numbers and a verbal reasoning task (true or false questions)
Baddley and Hitch Results and Conclusion
As the amount of digits increased they took longer to recall them but only by fraction of sec. Didn't make any more errors in the verbal reasoning tasks as # increased
Verbal tasks used CE, digit tasks used phonological loop. Dual task studies support STMM
Baddley and Hitch Evaluation
- explains a lot more than the multi-store model
- empirically supported
- applies to real life tasks; reading (PL) navigation (VSP)
- little evidence for workings of CE
- not a comprehensive model of memory as only involves STM not LTM
- critics VSP as suggests all spatial info once visual (blind people have spatial awareness)
Little Albert Stimulus and Responses
Neutral Stimulus: Bunny
Unconditional Stimulus: Banging
Unconditional Response: Fear
Conditioned Stimulus: Bang
Conditioned Response: Fear of Bunny
Pavlov's Dog Stimulus and Responses Before, After and During Conditioning
Before Conditioning; Food (Unconditioned Stimulus) —> Salvation (Unconditioned Response)
During Conditioning: Food and Bell (Unconditioned Stimulus) —> Salvation (Unconditioned response)
After Conditioning: Bell (Conditioned Stimulus ) —> Salvation (Conditioned Response
3 types of Learning
Conditioned, Operant and Observational
is the application of classical + operant conditioning techniques
Used to treat psychological problems such as fears/phobias
Techniques for Modifying Behaviour
Positive/Negative Reinforcement (rewards and punishments)
Artificial systems of reward and reinforcement where symbolic markers ( ie fake money) are used to reward behaviour
Criticism; it is effective long term after token is removed
- application of classical conditioning to fears/phobias
Fear response is replaced with a more relaxed response in a step by step process
- Graded exposure: least threatening to the most threatening situation is presented
- e.g seeing a picture of a snake, then seeing a real snake then holding it. Relaxation techniques are used at each step