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Flashcards in Relational Influences Deck (42):
1

Conflict

Is a perception that 2 parties, whether individuals or groups believe that they have incompatible goals, ideas or behaviours.

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Two Impacts of Conflict

- Socially destructive
- Mirror image perception

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Mirror Image Perception

refer to the reciprocal views of one another often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive —>

- incompetence/untrustworthy/immoral
- competent/integrity/high moral value

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Solutions to Resolve Conflict

- Imposed
- Distributive
- Integrative

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Imposed Solution

are dictated solutions by third party e.g a parent settles a dispute

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Distributive Solution

Compromise: A lose lose solution where neither party gets exactly what they want but they come to a compromise e.g industrial disputes where wages are set/

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Integrative Solutions

win/win both sides benefits (difficult) as to be some communication

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Techniques to resolve conflict?

- counselling
- negotiation
- mediation

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Counselling

usually when conflict arises in the family (counsellors will try to help client solve their own problem). Act as 3rd party

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Negotiation

parties have some shared interests but also some opposed interests (talk to each other to reach an agreement) e.g countries trying to reach a trade agreement)

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Mediation

Bringing in a 3rd pretty to enable the conflict to be settled, helps parties to reach voluntary solution. Can be distributive or integrative.
- identify each needs/goals
- facilitate discussion
- help each other understand

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Socialisation

the process by which we learn to become members of society, both by internalising (learn/accept) the norms and values of society and also by learning to perform our social roles

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Agents of Socialisation

- Family
- School
- Peer group
- Media
- Religion

14

Socialisation within Families

parents are an important part of our socialisation process as when we are born they become our primary caregivers; more contact with them then any other adult in early years.

15

Socialisation within Families Study

Melvin Kohn (1965, 1977) reasoned that working-class parents tend to hold factory/ little autonomy jobs and thus emphasise obedience and respect for authority even favouring spanking. Middle-class parents tend to hold white-collar jobs where autonomy and independent judgment and creativity is valued hence these parents emphasise independence and less likely to spank.

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Attachment

Is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space. Does not have to be reciprocated.

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3 Theories of Attachment

Harlow (Monkeys)
John Bowlby (Evolutionary model)
Mary Ainsworth (Strange situation)

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Harlows Study Aim + Outcome

To determine the importance of a caregiver's love for healthy childhood development. Theorised: contact comfort

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Contact Comfort

he reinforcement that drives attachment

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Harlows Method + Variables

Observational (time spent with Mother)
8 rhesus monkeys were removed from their mothers after birth The monkeys were raised by ‘surrogate’ mothers, one made of terrycloth (provided warmth/comfort) but did not provide food while the other mother was made of wire (provided food) but no comfort.
IV=whether or not the terrycloth surrogate had the bottle or the wire surrogate
DV=amount of time monkey spent with surrogate

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Harlows Findings

Monkeys spent most of their time on the terrycloth mother who provided warmth and comfort. Attachment is not just based on having physical needs met but is based on having emotional needs met (contact comfort).

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Bowlby's Theory of Attachment

Children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive
Attachment behaviours are instinctive and will be activated by any conditions that seem to threaten the achievement of proximity, such as separation, insecurity, and fear.

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4 Points of Attachment Theory

- A child has an innate need to attach to one main attachment figure (ie maternal attachment to Mother)

-A child should receive the continuous care of this single most important attachment figure for approx the first 12 months of life (critical period)

- There are long term consequences of maternal deprivation

- Short term separation leads to Protest (cries/screams when parent leaves), Despair (withdrawn) and Detachment (engagement with others lost, reject caregiver) (PDD)

-The child’s relationship with their primary caregiver leads to the development of an internal working model

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Internal Working Model

Cognitive framework comprising mental representations for understanding the world, self, and others
- model of others as being trustworthy
- model of self as being valuable
- model of self as being effective in interactions with others

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Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis

is that continual disruption of the attachment between infant and primary caregiver in critical period could result in long-term cognitive, social, and emotional difficulties

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What are long term consequences of maternal deprivation?

- delinquency
- reduced intelligence
- increased aggression
- depression
- affection-less psychopathy

27

Aim of Bowlby's 44 Thieves Study + Hypothesis

To investigate the long-term effects of maternal deprivation on people in order to see whether delinquents have suffered deprivation. 

Believed disruption of this primary relationship could lead to a higher incidence of juvenile delinquency, emotional difficulties, and antisocial behaviour

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44 Thieves Study Method

88 children were selected, 44 of them thieves. IQs were tested assessing their emotional attitude to test (psychologists), and parents were interviewed (social workers). They made seperate reports. Psychiatrist then conducted an initial interview with child then parent.

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Findings of 44 Thieves Study?

More than half of thieves had been separated for more than 6 months in first 5 years.
32% showed psychopathy
86% of those psychopaths experienced long separation in first 5 years

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Conclusion of 44 Thieves Experiment

Maternal deprivation caused permanent emotional damage. Diagnosed this as Psychopathy, involving a lack of emotional development, a lack of concern for others, lack of guilt and inability to form meaningful and lasting relationships.

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Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation

- Observed infants reaction when separated from their parents and reunited again.
- Three major types of attachment determined
- devised Strange Situation Classification (SSC) (how attachment may vary)

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Method of Strange Situation

Set up in a small room with one way glass (behaviour overtly observed) and familiar items. Infants 12-18months and 100 samples. Observing the behaviour of the infant in a series of eight episodes lasting approximately 3 minutes each. Most interested in 2nd reunion with Mum (child under most stress).

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8 Episodes

Mother, baby, and experimenter (lasts less than one minute).
Mother and baby alone.
A stranger joins the mother and infant.
Mother leaves baby and stranger alone.
Mother returns and stranger leaves.
Mother leaves; infant left completely alone.
Stranger returns.
Mother returns and stranger leaves.

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Strange Situation Classification (SSC)

Based on 4 interactive behaviours directed towards Mother in reunion.
Proximity and contacting seeking
Contact maintaining
Avoidance of proximity and contact
Resistance to contact and comforting


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Findings of Strange Situation

3 main attachment types
A: avoidant, ignored Mother, independant, did not desire comfort = due to figure being insensitive/rejecting needs
B: confident in caregiver, used as base = developed when giver is sensitive and responds to needs
C: clingy but reject them when interacting, no feelings of security, difficult to soothe = inconsistent responses to needs

36

Individualist Vs Collectivist

Value independence with each working to their own individual goals and value cooperation with each working towards the family or group goals

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Van Ljzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988) Aim and Method

To investigate if attachment styles (secure and insecure) are universal (the same) across cultures, or culturally specific. Used data from 32 studies conducting strange situation in different countries. Calculated average percentage for the different attachment styles (e.g. secure, avoidant, resistant) in each country.

38

Van Ljzendoorn & Kroonenberg Findings

Type B (secure) was most common. Individualistic countries had more type A (avoidant) and collectivist had more type C (resistant)

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3 Parenting Styles

- Authoritarian
- Authoritative
- Permissive

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Authoritarian Parenting

- strict rules (failure leads to punishment)
- doesn't reason rules
- high demands but not responsive
- obedience/status orientated

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Authoritative Parenting

- established rules yet democratic
- responsive and open to questions
- nurturing and forgiving
- assertive but not intrusive

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Permissive Parenting

- very few demands
- rarely discipline/low demands
- more responsive than demanding
- allow self regulation/ lenient
- generally nurturing and communicative