Flashcards in Cognitive and Cognitive Behaviourism Deck (46):
Bandura’s view of persons as agents of experience.
A form of therapy that applies the principles of learning to achieve changes in behavior.
In Rotter’s theory, a variable that refers to the likelihood that a particular behavior will occur in a given situation.
In Mischel’s theory, personality consistencies found in distinctive and stable IF-THEN patterns of variability across situations.
Michel’s view that an individual’s behavior is influenced by the specific situation.
Acronym for Mischel and Shoda’s cognitive-affective system theory of personality.
In Rotter’s theory, the individual’s subjective expectation about the outcome of his or her behavior.
An assessment tool developed by Rotter that measures an individual’s perception of control.
locus of control
In Rotter’s theory, the extent to which a person believes that reinforcements are controlled by his or her own behavior (internal locus) or by other people or outside forces (external locus).
In Bandura’s theory, practices that permits individuals and institutions to perpetuate and encourage violence and other inhumane activities while justifying and exonerating their behavior.
In Bandura’s theory, learning that occurs through observation without any direct reinforcement.
The psychological context within which an organism responds.
In Rotter’s theory, a variable that indicates the importance or preference of a particular reinforcement for an individual.
In Bandura’s theory, a person’s perception of his or her effectiveness.
In Bandura’s theory, the influencing of one’s own behavior.
triadic reciprocal causation
In Bandura’s theory, the regulation of behavior by an interplay of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
The ability to perceive differences in the way in which one construes other people.
In Kelly’s theory, the assumption that any one event is open to a variety of interpretations.
In Kelly’s theory, eleven statements that elaborate on the fundamental postulate.
In Kelly’s theory, a hypothesis an individual forms in order to predict and control events, which makes the world meaningful and which is tested by later experience.
personal construct theory
George Kelly’s theory of personality.
Role Construct Repertory Test: a device developed by Kelly to reveal personal constructs by comparing and contrasting a number of significant persons in one’s life.
In social psychology, a set of behavioral expectations set forth by a particular society and fulfilled by its members. In Kelly’s theory, a process or behavior that people engage in based on their understanding of the behavior and constructs of others.
A therapeutic technique in Kelly and Beck’s therapy, in which clients are asked to rehearse situations that will later happen in real life.
In Kelly’s theory, perception of similarities in one’s behavior based on role relationships with other people.
Explain why an agentic perspective emerges in Bandura's theory, and describe what human agency entails.
bandura introduces an agentic perspective to clarify that people actively contribute to their experience. Human agency entails intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness
Explain what Bandura means by triadic reciprocal causation, and identify what three factors that enter into it.
Bandura suggests that the interplay of three factors - personal determinants, behavioural determinants, and environmental determinants - shapes human behaviour. Triadic reciprocal causation is the name for this idea.
Describe observational learning by identifying three factors that influence modelling, four processes that enter into observational learning, and the role of reinforcement in observational learning.
Bandura believes that most human behaviour is learned though observation and modelling. Three factors that influence modelling are characteristics of the model attributes of the observer, and reward consequences associated with the behaviour. Four processes that enter into observational learning are attentional processes, retentional process, motor reproduction processes, and motivational processes. Extrinsic, intrinsic, vicarious, and self-reinforcement all play a role in observational learning.
Explain what is meant by self regulation
Self-regulation is influencing one's own behaviour. It entails slef-monitoring, self-judgement, and affective self-reaction
Discuss Bandura's contributions to the discussion of aggression, inhumane behaviour, and moral disengagement.
Bandura believes that frequent exposure to aggression and violence in the media encourages people to behave aggressively. He explores how moral disengagement permits individuals and institutions to continue inhumane behaviours.
Explain the concept of self efficacy
Self-efficacy refers to people's beliefs that they can successfully perform behaviours that will produce desired effects.
Describe Bandura's contributions to behavioural modification
Bandura added the systematic use of modelling as a therapeutic technique of behaviour modification, he developed a strategies designed to help people improve their sense of self efficacy and encourages use of sophisticated new technology and social media to model behaviour
Evaluate Bandura's theory from the perspective of a philosophy, science, and art.
Bandura's model clearly emulates a scientific model
Describe Rotter's I-E Scale, and discuss the construct it measures and the findings to which it has led
Developed to measure internal versus external control of reinforcement. The scale has been widely used in research and has led to a number of significant findings.
Describe the 4 variables that Rotter includes in his formula for predicting behaviour
The 4 variables are behaviour potential, expectancy, reinforcement value, and the psychological situation. they can be measured and related in a specific formula that enables us to predict a person's behaviour in any given situation.
Discuss Mischels initial work on behavioural specificity
Indicated an individual's behaviour is determined by the situation.
Describe the cognitive-affective system theory of personality known as CAPS
Personality is a stable system that mediates the selection, construction, and processing of information that generates behaviour. One's behavioural signature is the personality consistencies found in distinctive and stable patterns of variability across situations.
Discuss the follow-up studies of Mischel's experiments in delay of gratification.
Demonstrate a biological basis for self regulation and delay of gratification.
Explain why Kelly suggested that we view ourselves as scientists.
Because, in our efforts to understand the world we develop personal constructs that act as hypothesis that make the world meaningful to us.
Describe the philosophical position of constructive alternativism
the assumption that any one event is open to a number of interpretations.
Discuss Kelly's fundamental postulate, and identify eleven corollaries that support it
"a person's processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events" Kelly elaborates on his fundamental postulate with eleven corollaries: construction, individuality, organization, dichotomy, choice, range, experience, modulation, fragmentation, communality, and sociality.
Explain how Kelly re-conceived traditional concepts in personality theorizing
Kelly gave new meaning to many traditional concepts of personality theorizing including self-construct, role, learning, motivation, and emotion.
Describe the REP test
Kelly developed the REP test, which permits a person to reveal his or her constructs by comparing and contrasting a number of different persons in his or her own life.
Discuss Kelly's view of and contributions to psychotherapy
Sought to help his patients reconstrue the world by first elaborating the complaint and then elaborating the construct system. His unique contribution was that of role playing.
Identify some of the criticisms of Kelly's theory
Being too intellectual and for failing to deal with the whole of personality or the emotions