Flashcards in Cognitive Psychology Deck (41):
Which three systems spawned from structuralism?
Functionalism, behaviourism, and Gestalt psychology.
As a structuralist, what method did Edward Titchener use?
In order to break consciousness into its elements, Titchener used introspection, self reports of participants' conscious experiences.
What is another term for reaction time?
What was Ebbinghaus's famous experiment?
Tested himself in learning nonsense syllables and quantified it with a method of savings (comparison of how many trials needed to relearn a list) which helped formulate a forgetting curve (which plateaus after about five days - you forget most within five days).
What are the three mental stages of memory?
Encoding, storage, and retrieval.
What is the generation-recognition model?
Model suggesting that you can recognize more than you recall because recall requires an additional step.
What is the stage theory of memory?
That sensory, short-term, and long-term memory all have different functions.
Describe sensory memory.
Lasting only for seconds, visual is iconic, auditory is echoed, initially tested with the whole-repot procedure (9*9 letter paradigm), then with the partial-report procedure (Sparling).
Describe short-term memory.
What we attend to, cam last for 29 seconds or the duration of maintenance rehearsal, chunking.
Describe long-term memory.
Permanent storehouse, elaborating rehearsal, procedural and declarative (semantic and episodic).
How could one experiment semantic priming?
Ask participants to press "yes" if two paired words are real words : reaction time of pairs similar in meaning should be lower.
Who proposed the spreading activation model? What is it?
Collins and Loftus. Based on the response latencies of associations in the semantic verification task; words closer together in RTs are more semantically related.
Who proposed the semantic feature-comparison model? What is it?
Smith, Shoben, and Rips. Posits that we have feature lists of concepts and the more overlap that exists between two concepts, the faster we will be at recognizing them as being associated (robin and bird), if there is moderate overlap it will be most difficult for us to reach a decision (turkey bird).
What did Craik and Lockart propose to challenge the stage theory of memory?
The depth of processing theory : where a memory is stored is not important, rather how you store it is important (physical, acoustical, semantic).
What is Paivio's dual-code hypothesis?
Information can be stored visually and verbally (abstract words encoded verbally, concrete words visually).
What is decay theory?
Information not used or rehearsed will eventually be forgotten.
What is inhibition theory?
Proactive - what you learn earlier interferes with what you learn later
Retroactive - you forget what you learned earlier because of what you learn later
What I seconding specificity and state dependent learning?
Theories that if you are in the same environment and physiological state of arousal when you learn as when you recall you will retrieve information more effectively.
What did Sir Frederick Bartlett discover by studying memory with a ghost tale?
That prior knowledge influences recall.
Who is Elizabeth Loftus?
Studied eyewitness testimonies and the many ways that it could be influenced.
What is the Zeigarnik effect?
Tendency to remember incomplete tasks more than complete ones.
What is Luchin's water jar problem?
Task wherein subjects have three jars of varying capacities and must come to a desired capacity.
What is functional fixedness?
Tendency to view some objects as having certain functions, inability to see objects with different functions.
What is the most famous attempt at testing creativity?
Guilford's divergent thinking experiment.
Who found that humans use heuristics?
Kahneman and Tversky.
What is the availability heuristic, the representative heuristic and the base rate fallacy?
Availability - what is readily accessible in our minds
Representative - stereotyping (using stereotypical factors is called base rate fallacy)
What are phonemes, morphemes, semantics, and syntax?
Phoneme - smallest unit of sound
Morpheme - smallest unit of meaning
Semantics - meaning of words and sentenced
Syntax - arrangement of words
What is the difference between the learning theory and the cognitive developmental theory?
Learning - language is acquire through conditioning and modelling
Cognition - child's ability to acknowledge the abstract and symbolic affects language development
What's the difference between deep and surface grammatical structure?
Surface - actual words used to convey meaning
Deep/abstract - meaning of the sentence
Want are transformational rules?
Tell us how to change the structures a sentence.
What is the Whorfian hypothesis?
AKA linguistic relativity: our perception of the world is determined by language.
Who studied and found gender differences in language?
Macoby and Jacklin.
What was Spearman's take on intelligence?
Individual difference was due to variations in a general factor (g).
What are Thurstone's primary mental abilities (4)?
Verbal comprehension, number ability, perceptual speed, general reasoning.
Who posited the triarchic theory of intelligence? What is it?
Sternberg: componential (performance on tests), experiential (creativity), and contextual (street smarts).
Which seven aspects are highlighted in the theory of multiple intelligences by Gardner.
Linguistic ability, logical-mathematical, physical, interpersonal, spatial ability, musical ability, intrapersonal.
Cattell divided mental baited into which two types?
Fluid (quickly grasp relationships in novel situations) and crystallized (understand relationships based on learned material) intelligences.
What is the trajectory of fluid versus crystallized intelligence?
Fluid - increase in childhood, level at adolescence, decline with advanced age
Crystallized - increases throughout lifespan
How did Jensen create controversy?
Educational psychologist who studied racial lines and genetics of intelligence.
What did McLelland and Rumelhart discover about information processing in the brain?
That it is done in a parallel rather than serial fashion.