Flashcards in Developmental Psychology Deck (64):
What do empiricist a believe children are?
Tabula rasas. Blank slates.
Why was Rousseau forced to flee France?
Due to his book on child raising that posited society was unnecessary.
What is the functionalist system of thought?
Importance of studying the mind as it relates to facilitating an individual's about to adapt to the environment.
Who is Stanley Hall?
One of the founders of the APA, the founder of child psychology, did empirical research on children and compared their ages.
How did Watson view children and what was his take on methodology?
Watson was a pure behaviourist, believing that even emotions and thoughts were acquired through learning. He also believed that psychology should only be measured objectively.
Who is Arnold Gesell?
A nativist believing that development occurred via maturation rather that learning.
What is the psychodynamic orientation?
A view posited by Freud stating that subconscious conflicts play a large role in the development of functioning and personality.
Which 6 people were part of the British empiricist school of thought?
John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, George Berkeley, David Hume, James Mill, John Stuart Mill.
How did Piaget's view of development differ from that of psychoanalytic theorists?
Piaget was a cognitive structuralist and viewed children as having a more active role in their own development.
Which three research methods are often used in developmental psychology?
Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential cohort studies.
Who initiated the study of genetics?
Gregor Mendel, he discovered genes that had alternative forms of alleles, either dominant or recessive.
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Genotype : The complete genetic makeup of an individual.
Phenotype : Totality of expressed traits.
Where are genes located?
In chromosomes, the 23rd of which determines sex.
How did R. C. Tyron's study demonstrate that genes can affect behaviour?
Tyron bred rats based on their traits (maze bright, maze dull, or intermediate). The difference over generations increased demonstrating some genetic effect in learning ability. (This difference was only noted in the specific maze Tyron used.)
Which three research methods determine degree of genetic influence?
Family studies, twin studies, adoption studies.
What population did Lewis Terman study?
Children with high IQs (over 135) for every five years.
What causes Down's Syndrome?
Extra 21st chromosome, increased risk with older parents.
What is PKU?
Phenylketonuria : lack of enzyme needed to digest an amino acid often found in milk.
What is the result of having an extra X chromosome?
Klinefelter's syndrome - men often sterile and have some degree of mental retardation.
What is it when females only have one X chromosome?
Turner's syndrome - physical abnormalities, inability to develop secondary sec characteristics.
What are the four prenatal stages?
Zygote, germinal period, embryonic period, and fetal period.
Describe the process of prenatal development.
Human sex cells, gametes, form the zygote via fertilization. The zygote divides increasingly and shifts to the uterine wall. The embryo increases two million percent in the next eight weeks: Physical limbs are visible and nerve cells develop. Electrical brain activity is noticed in the fetal period (mo 3) and the fetus continues to grow after that.
List and explain four neonatal reflexes.
Rooting: Turning head in direction of stimuli on cheek.
Moro: Flinging out arms and then recoiling in reaction to abrupt movement of their heads.
Babinski: spreading toes when soles of feet are stimulated.
Grasping: automatically closing fingers around objects in hand.
What is schema?
Schema includes the action tendencies and organized pattern of behaviour.
What is th principle of adaptation and which two processes does it require?
Assimilation interprets new info based on old schema, accommodation is when new info doesn't fit in pre existing schema and the schema are altered to fit the new info. Together, these processes allow an individual to adapt to their environments.
What are th four stages of cognitive development posited by Piaget?
Sensorimotor, pre operational, concrete operational, and formal operational?
What occurs in the sensorimotor stage?
Primary and secondary circular reactions(motioning with the body or objects to indicate goals), object permanence.
What occurs in the pre operational stage?
Beginning of representational thought. Centration: ability to only focus on one phenomenon (no Perspective taking), egocentrism. They do not understand conservation.
What occurs in the concrete operational stage?
Conservation, perspective taking, difficulty with abstract thought.
What occurs in the formal operational stage?
Ability to think logically as demonstrated by pendulum experiment: children vary all variables at random, adolescents isolate one at a time.
What did Piaget think the relationship was between language and thought?
That the way you use language is dependent on which stage you were in.
How has Piaget's work been criticized?
Clinical versus statistical methods, only in technological cultures, thinking like a scientist is not necessarily a desirable end point.
What did Vygotsky propose the driving force of cognition is?
The internalization of interpersonal and cultural rules.
What is the zone of proximal development?
Skills that have not yet fully developed but that are in the process of developing.
What are the four basic components of language?
Phonology, semantics, pragmatics and syntax.
What is categorical perception?
The ability to differentiate between sounds that have meaning of language and those that do not.
What are pragmatics?
Efficient use of language; how words are spoken.
What is considered a precursor to language?
What did Lenneberg, Rebelsky, and Nichols find?
Babbling began at the same age for hearing and deaf children with different parentage, but ceased soon after for deaf children and continued for hearing ones.
What are errors of growth/over regulations?
Tendency to generalize complex rules when increasing your vocabulary.
Who is mostly associated with the idea that children have language acquisition and why?
Noam Chomsky; he studies transformational grammar, proposed a language acquisition device, and posited a critical period to learn language (later deemed a sensitive period).
What were Freud's five stages of psychosexual development?
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
What do Freud's five stages represent?
Resolution of a conflict between societal demands and the want to meet libidinal drive.
How do the five stages translate to adulthood?
Oral: Excessive dependency
Anal: Excessive orderliness or sloppiness
Phallic: Oedipus/Elektra conflict
Latency: until puberty
Genital: Heterosexual relationships or fetishism.
Who posited the psychosocial theory? What is it?
Erik Erikson: Development is a sequence of life crises.
What are Erikson's eight stages?
Trust v mistrust
Autonomy v shame and doubt
Initiative v guilt
Industry v inferiority
Identity v role confusion
Intimacy v isolation
Generativity v stagnation
Integrity v despair
What is temperament?
Central part of personality, stable over time.
What did Thomas and Chess find?
Three temperaments: easy, slow to warm up, difficult that corresponded to bodily functions and positive/negative emotionality.
In what three ways is temperament measured?
Parental reports of behaviour, naturalistic observation, lab observation.
What did Wolff discover in terms of babies' cries?
There were three types: basic cry for hunger, angry cry for frustration, pain cry for pain.
What did Harlow study and how?
Rhesus monkeys separated from mothers and replaced with functional or comfort surrogates. Wire monkeys took longer to adapt to monkey society, isolated monkeys didn't adapt.
What population did Bowlby study?
Children from orphanages and foster homes.
How did Bowlby propose that the attachment process developed?
Pre attachment has no discrimination between faces. At three months there is discrimination by familiarity. At six months children seek out mother and respond to her. Nine to twelve months there is a fear of strangers. The second year has separation anxiety.
Who devised the strange situation procedure?
What are the three types of attachments as posited by Ainsworth's procedure?
Insecure/avoidant, secure, insecure/resistant.
What did Konrad Lorenz study?
Imprinting, rapid formation of a bond between an organism and an object in the environment.
What is an ethologist?
Person who studies which stimuli infants attach to.
What were Kohlberg's three dual stage phases of moral development?
Preconventional: punishment and obedience followed by orientation to reciprocity/instrumental relativist stage.
Conventional: social rules: search for approval followed by law and order orientation (authority for law)
Post conventional: social contract orientation (morals are for greater good) followed erase ethical principles.
Name a famous dilemma Kohlberg's created to categorize individuals in his phases of moral development.
The Heinz dilemma centres around a man whose wife is dying and needs expensive medications, so he steals them. The thought process is more important than the actual answer.
Who famously criticized Kohlberg's stages and why?
Carol Gilligan because Kohlberg's experiments do not reflect the thought processes of females who are more caring and compassion-bound.
What are Kohlberg's three gender stages?
Gender labelling (acceptance of sex), gender stability (predict stability of sex), and gender consistency (permanence of sex sets in).
Who proposed the gender schematic processing theory? What is it?
Martin and Halverson; children beg concentrating on the behaviours associated with their gender once they label themselves.
Who is Diane Baumrind?
Psychologist who proposed three parenting styles: Authoritarian (punishment as a means of control, lack of warmth), authoritative (high demands, high warmth, positive reinforcement), permissive (low control and demand). Authoritative leads to academically competent children, the other two have difficulties in school.