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Flashcards in Personality And Abnormal Psychology Deck (74):

Who proposed that psychology has evolved via Zeitgeist?

E. G. Boring: the spirit of the times.


What did Edward Tichener suggest in terms of a model? What system of psychology did it lead to?

Method of introspection which led to the system of structuralism.


What is the system of humanism?

Belief in free will and considers the person as more than just stimuli-response (behaviourism) and instincts (psychoanalysis).


Who were two famous humanists?

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.


Who are two pioneers in treating the mentally ill in a humane way?

Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix.


What is general paresis?

Disorder consisting of delusions of grandeur, mental deterioration, paralysis, and death, due to syphilis.


What did Cerletti and Bini introduce?

Electroshock to create seizures in psychiatric patients, specifically as a cure for schizophrenia.


Who is Emil Kraepelin?

Man who published a textbook outlining the symptom patterns of psychiatric illnesses and who used research to classify them accordingly; created the DSM.


How did William Sheldon characterize people's personality?

In relation to their body type.
Endomorphy: soft and spherical
Mesomorphy: hard, muscular, rectangular
Ectomorphy: thin, fragile, lightly muscled


What are the four categories of personality theories?

Psychodynamic, phenomenological, behaviourist, and type and trait.


What is the overarching psychodynamic theory of personality?

That unconscious internal states motivate overt actions and determine personality.


How do the ID, ego, and superego work according to Freud's structural dynamic model?

The ID uses primary processes to obtain immediate gratification. The ego uses secondary processes and the reality principle to reach desires pragmatically. The superego (conscience + ego-ideal) is the moral part of personality.


What are Eros and Thanatos?

Life and death instincts, they are fuelled by libido.


What are two common characteristics of defence mechanisms?

They deny/distort reality and they are subconscious.


Name the eight main defence mechanisms.

Repression, suppression, projection, reaction formation, rationalization, regression, sublimation, displacement.


Carl Jung divided the unconscious into which two parts?

The personal and collective unconscious.


What are four common Jungian archetypes?

Persona, animus/anima, shadow (animal instinct), self (striving for unity).


Who was the originator of the inferiority complex?

Alfred Adler, he believed that striving for superiority drove personality and that selfish strives resulted in personality disorders.


What do the terms creative self, style of life and fictional finalist mean for Adler?

Creative self is the way one shapes their uniqueness, style of life is the manifestation of the creative self, fictional finalist posits that people are motivated by expectations of the future and not by observing the past.


According to Horney, what three methods do insecure children use to overcome anxiety?

Approach people to gain their good will, go against people to get the upper hand, withdraw from people.


Who founded ego psychology?

Anna Freud.


What is object relations theory?

The object is symbolic for the child's personality, the study of the creation and development of internalized objects.


Define psychoanalysis.

Study of repressed thoughts to further development.


What is resistance according to Freud?

Resistance is when the patient is unwilling or switches topics rapidly for certain topics; it is a major part of analysis.


What is transference?

When a patient puts his relationship with others into his relationship with the therapist.


What do neo-Freudian approaches emphasize?

Current interpersonal relationships rather than childhood and sexuality.


What did John Dollard and Neil Miller do?

Blended psychoanalytic concepts in a behavioural learning approach.


How do Skinner and Bandura feel about the development of personality?

It is a result of behavioural development.


What is vicarious reinforcement?

Seeing the actions of others being reinforced.


He did Martin Seligman demonstrate learned helplessness?

Dogs were shocked with the floor of their cell. They jumped to try to avoid it, but they increasingly became aware at hey couldn't change the situation and eventually stopped trying.


What is the difference between behaviour and psychoanalyst therapy?

Behaviourists think that the symptoms are the disorder and not indicative of the disorder.


Name one characteristic of Beck's therapy and Ellis's RET.

The client replaces their negative thoughts about the self with more realistic ones.

The client irrational beliefs are challenged.


What is symptom substitution?

New symptoms that develop when old symptoms are "cured" but the underlying cause is not.


What is Lewin's field theory?

Personality is dynamic and ever changing, it's various systems communicate well unless a person experiences intense stress.


What are the characteristics of Maslow's hierarchy for needs?

Physiological (food, shelter), belongingness and love, esteem,cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualizaton.


What is a peak experience?

Turning point.


How does George Kelly view the individual?

As a scientist who tests theories about how others will act to add to their construal of the world. Those who are unable to understand the variables of others in his environment suffer.


What is Carl Rogers known for?

His client-centered therapy wherein clients can reflect on their own selves and make their own decisions. Unconditional positive regard is required from the therapist.


Who is Victor Frankl?

Nazi camp survivor who believes in the search for meaning.


Who is Raymond Cattell? What did he do?

A trait theorist who devised 16 traits as the basis of personality.


Who is Hans Eysenck?

Used factor analysis to devise three dimensions of personality: introversion-extraversion, emotional stability-neuroticism, and psychoticism.


What were Allport's three dispositions?

Cardinal (traits around which a person constructs his life), central (major characteristics), secondary (personal characteristics).


What is functional autonomy?

The notion that the means to an end can become the end itself.


What is the difference between the ideographic and nomothetic approach?

Ideographic is studying personality on a case by case basis and nomothetic is studying personality in groups and finding commonalities between people.


Who devised the need for achievement trait?

David McLelland.


What two things did Herman Witkin draw a relationship between?

An individual's personality and their perception of the world via his field-dependence theory. Those more dependent were more easily swayed.


What work was done by Julian Rotter?

Work on internal and external loci of control.


What is androgyny?

The state of being simultaneously very masculine and feminine, as posited by Sandra Bem.


What is Walter Mischel's criticism of personality traits?

That behaviour is much more situation than person dependent.


The DSM uses a multiracial assessment. What are the axes?

Axis 1 : Clinical disorders without personality and retardation.
Axis 2 : Personality and mental retardation.
Axis 3 : Relevant medical conditions.
Axis 4 : Psychosocial and environmental stress affecting axes 1 & 2.
Axis 5 : Judgment on overall function on scale from 0 to 100.


What are some characteristics of ADHD?

Atypical inattention and impulsivity. Unable to follow instructions, fidgety, inability to delay gratification. Usually diagnosed once school begins.


What are characteristics of autism?

Lack of communication, repetitive behaviours, impairment in language skills, over sensitive to stimuli.


What are the characteristics of Tourette's?

Multiple motor and verbal tics.


What are characteristics of Dementia Praecox?

Distortions of reality, disorganized thought, inappropriate affect.


What are positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

Positive symptoms are added to normal behaviour (delusions and hallucinations) and negative symptoms are the absence of normal behaviour (flat affect).


What is the prodromal phase?

Before diagnosis, the period of poor adjustment in the world.


What is the difference in prognosis between process and reactive schizophrenia?

Process refers to a slow and insidious form that has a poorer prognosis than reactive that is sudden and intense.


What are the five subtypes of schizophrenia?

Catatonic (motor behaviour), paranoid (delusions and hallucinations), disorganized (flat affect, disorganized speech), undifferentiated (other), and residual (previous episode, now no positive symptoms).


What is the leading hypothesis surrounding schizophrenia?

Dopamine hypothesis: excess of dopamine in certain areas of the brain OR over sensitivity to dopamine. Evidence is purely in effect of antipsychotic drugs.


What is the double bind hypothesis?

That children who receive contradicting and incompatible messages from caregivers and who internalize them develop schizophrenia.


What is major depressive disorder?

At least one episode lasting at least two weeks with persistent depressed mood. Appetite, interest, energy, and thoughts of death are also lacking/present. Symptoms must cause extreme distress.


What is bipolar disorder?

Depression and mania; persistent elevated mood with esteem and lesser need for sleep and impaired judgment. Bipolar 1 has manic episodes, bipolar II has hypomania (no impaired functioning, more energetic though).


What are dysthymic and cyclothymic disorders?

Less sever symptoms of major depressive disorders.


What is the catecholamine theory of depression?

Too much norepinephrine and serotonin leads to mania and too little leads to depression.


What are somatotropin disorders?

Presence of physical symptoms that can't be explained by a medical condition.


What is a conversion disorder?

Symptoms affecting voluntary motor or sensory functions.


What are the four known dissociative disorders?

Dissociative amnesia (amnesia not due to neurological issue), dissociative fugue (amnesia after sudden move from home), dissociative identity disorder, and depersonalizations disorder (detached from self, as an observer).


What is anorexia nervosa?

Refusal to maintain minimal normal body weight, distorted body image.


What is bulimia?

Binge eating and purging, fasting, or excessive exercising.


What are four of the most common personality disorders?

Schizoid (restricted emotion, poor social skills), borderline (instability in mood and behaviour, identity disturbance, fear of abandonment), narcissistic (grandiosity, sense of entitlement, fragile self esteem), antisocial (disregard for the rights of others).


What is the diathesis-stress model?

Diathesis is predisposition, with excessive stress predispositions become mental disorders. Emphasizes the interaction between biology and psychology.


What is primary prevention?

Proactive way to diminish the conditions that foster mental illness.


What did David Rosenhan do?

Studies whether a sane person could be deemed sane amongst insane individuals. The label of being mentally ill doesn't really go away, and it can be feigned.


Who wrote the Myth of Mental Illness? Why?

Thomas Szasz, posited that labelling is an effort to get people to adhere to social norm.