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Teheran Conference events

november 1943
- Churchill Roosevelt Stalin
- Each leader arrived with different aims
- addressed relations with Turkey and Iran/ operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan/ post-war settlement
- Stalin keen to invade Nazi occupied France- Soviet Red Army only army fighting Nazis on land
- Outcomes:
- US and Uk would invade France and USSR would join US and UK in war against Japan
- once Nazis defeated - Western Allies agreed to open a second front and USSR would launch an offence on their Eastern front at the same time
- Germany would be divided post-war
- Stalin used Roosevelt's poor health and UK's declining power to dominate meeting - gained permission to oversee establishment of new govts in EE
- Churchill called Stalin 'uncle Joe'
- Stalin secretly recorded the meeting to use for own benefit


significance of Teheran

- each leader arrived with different aims - only united by common enemy
- despite appearance of Grand Alliance as union - mistrust and tension that had been more evident before WW2 remained
- at first UK and US refused to open second front - tension - eventually agreed
- Stalin clearly did not trust others - recorded meeting
- many concessions made set the stage for Cold War - allowing Stalin to take over EE govts


Percentages agreement events

Oct 1944
- Churchill and Stalin
- Churchill's aim to limit influence of USSR and uphold that of UK
- Stalin agreed but Red Army's position allowed hom to take over EE anyway
- discussed various divisions of European countries into spheres of influence
- made public by Churchill later
- Romania - 90% Soviet
- Greece - 90% Western
- Yugoslavia and Hungary - 50%
- Bulgaria - 75% Soviet


significance of the Percentages Agreement

- dividing up Europe between two powers - shows their division
- Couldn't agree later on
- anticipation for worsening relations


Yalta Conference events

Feb 1945
- Stalin Roosevelt Churchill
- goal to shape post-war peace
- plans finalised for occupation of Germany and Berlin - each power allotted its own zone
- set up UN
- Poland was difficult subject - allies only able to come to agreement through ambiguous compromises
- intended to discuss reestablishment of nations of war-torn Europe/Poland territory would be increased from land removed from Germany
- Stalin agreed to enter war against Japan within 3 months of end of WW2
- Roosevelt persuaded Stalin and Churchill to agree to the Declaration on Liberated Europe - committed the govts to carry out emergency measures to assist the liberated states and set up democratically elected govts


significance of Yalta

- inability to work together/ co-exist - shown by division of Berlin and Germany
- Divisions became apparent - Stalin worried USSR would be outnumbered in UN
- Poland seemed to be success for UK and US - but terms were vague - Stalin could easily manipulate them - democracy meant different things to Stalin vs West
- The Declaration on Liberated Europe became a key text 'upon which all future accusations of Soviet betrayal and bad faith were made'
- arguments over Poland created tension
- strong relationship between Roosevelt and Stalin became key to maintaining good relations


Molotov Truman talks events

April 1945
- Truman was rude to Molotov
- less than two weeks post Roosevelt's death
- incident indicated Truman would take a tougher stance with Soviets
- Truman said Soviets were breaking their agreements and that Stalin needed to keep to his word
- Molotov declared that he had never been asked to in such a manner
- some from the West thought Roosevelt was too soft and naive in his belief that Stalin would cooperate with West post-war


significance of Molotov Truman talks

- tension between West and East - Truman less willing to cooperate than Roosevelt
- worsened relations


end of WW2 against Germany events

May 1945
- created power vacuum in Europe - US and USSR both drawn into it
- Germany's defeat left large areas of Europe without meaningful govt
- traditional forms of govt in Europe been discredited
- left Europe economically devastated
- over 16 million homeless in Europe
- desperate need for reconstruction
- allies no longer united in Grand Alliance by common enemy


end of WW2 against Germany significance

- power vacuum was catalyst for worsening relations and struggle for overall power in Cold War
- no longer united by common enemy = no reason to cooperate
- Europe economically devastated = attraction of communism


Potsdam Conference events

17th July - 2nd Aug 1945
- Churchill replaced by Attlee halfway through - cold personality - socialist leader but not communist
Truman replaced Roosevelt
- Stalin determined to move Poland's frontiers westwards
- gathered to decide how to administrate the defeated Nazi Germany
- wanted to establish post-war order/ peace treaty issues
- agreed on necessary measures for German demilitarisation, denazification and punishment of war criminals
- only able to draw up minimal political and economic guidelines
- allied control council - substitute for German govt
- no agreement over Germany's reparations - UK and US wanted to rebuild German econ - USSR wanted revenge - wanted to strip it of military and industry - each would take reparations from their zones - USSR upset - their zone least developed


significance of Potsdam

- all previous trust build was lost - both Western leaders replaced
- tension as Truman tried to dictate the meeting with his power of owning the atomic bomb - first tested on 16th July - Stalin more determined to create a buffer zone and protect/spread communism
- meeting was marked by recriminations and suspicion between the Americans and Soviets


atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima events

Aug 1945
- immediately killed 80,000
- thousands more died in following weeks from wounds and radiation poisoning
- three days later another bomb dropped on Nagasaki - killing 40,000
- Japan announced surrender
- second objective to demonstrate the new weapon of mass destruction to USSR
- Potsdam ended four days before bombing Hiroshima - Truman hoped the US atomic monopoly might offer diplomatic leverage with Soviets


significance of dropping atomic bomb on Hiroshima

- tension as Truman tried to dictate Potsdam due to power in atomic bomb
- showed Truman was not willing to work together - instead he wanted to have power over the other leaders
- made Stalin more determined to create buffer zone - USSR's atomic bomb building programme sped up - arms race began


VJ Day - end of war against Japan events

2nd Sept 1945
- Japan surrendered unconditionally to the allies - effectively ending WW2
- 'Victory over Japan Day'


significance of VJ Day - end of war against Japan

- WW2 finished - focus on arms race
- no reason to maintain Grand Alliance


Kennan's Long Telegram events

Feb 1946
- claims USSR 'should be approached with the same thoroughness and care as solution of major strategic problem in war' and consequently proposes a Cold War
- no compromises between capitalism and communism
- USSR wants to expand and spread communism throughout the world and must be contained


significance of the Long Telegram

- provokes speeches by Churchill and Stalin - Stalin paling Churchill Hitler
- clearly established the two superpowers' rivalry
- proposed war - shows both sides are willing to engage in one
- emphasised the divide between capitalism and communism


Iron Curtain speech events

5th March 1946
- Churchill claimed that an iron curtain had descended across Europe - separating the East and West
- was poorly received by America - thought it was too rough on the Soviets
- Churchill fears Stalin planned to stir up Revolutions across Europe and win power through revolution rather than military
- called on Western nations to resist USSR


significance of Iron Curtain speech

- resulted in Stalin publicly denouncing Churchill
- showed fear division between east and west according to Churchill himself - showed he was unwilling to cooperate with USSR


Iran Crisis events

end of march 1946
- Iran occupied by Britain and USSR in WW2
- by end of war USSR occupied north and UK the south
- USSR said they would hand over their territory by March BUT they didn't - UK and US united in condemnation of the USSR's 'aggressive imperialist policy'
- Azerbaijan created in 1918 by USSR - soviet expansionism
- UK and USSR originally invaded to secure Iranian oil fields + ensure supply lines for soviet forces fighting on the Eastern front


significance of the Iran Crisis

- led to the final breakdown of Grand Alliance
- Iran crisis showed Britain and US that their fears that USSR was building military power to spread communism were correct
- led to clear division within grand alliance


Novikov's Telegram events

sept 1946
- soviet ambassador to US - Novikov - sent a telegram to Moscow summing up his views of the US
- expressed concerns about the way that the US was using its wealth to gain global influence
- argued that the US was acting like an imperialist power
- said that the expansion of the network of the US military bases was a sign that the US govt was planning 'global domination'


significance of Novikov's Telegram

- made Stalin feel threatened by US - needed to act against them and the spread of their influence
- clear division ideologically between capitalism and communism


Truman Doctrine events

12th march 1947
- result of political unrest in India, Pakistan and Egypt - UK had to keep many troops in Germany, Italy, Middle East and Asia = expensive
- UK had to end financial military aid to Greece and Turkey - couldn't afford - not good for US because of civi war in Greece
- doctrine designed to prevent communism from spreading to Western Europe - military aid
- Truman Doctrine and Marshall aid were 'two sides of the same walnut'
- demonstrated that the US' priorities were to rebuild Europe and not cooperate with the USSR
- $400 million given to Greece and Turkey in aid


significance of Truman Doctrine

- showed Trman's hardline approach to the USSR - worsened their relation - called on the US to act in defence of the 'free world' against communism
- was a clear attempt to contain Communism and showed clear divide between capitalist west and communist east


communist control over Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary events

- communists formed a coalition with Peasants' Party
- '47 Patkov - leader of peasant party was hanged for allegedly plotting a coup
- rigged elections in '46
- '47 Peasant party dissolved and King Michael forced t abdicate
- Communists worked with peasant smallholder's party
- applied salami tactics (Rakosi) - provoking splits and divisions amongst coalition partners who were then accused of being anti soviet or pro fascist
-'47 communists accused leadership of smallholder's party of offences against the Red army and dissolved party - by end of year all other political parties had been abolished


significance of communist control over Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary

- all part of Stalin's attempt to create a buffer zone in EE to protect communism from US
- clear point of tension and extremely low relations
- forced elections showed Stalin's determination to beat the capitalist west and create a fully communist EE


Bizonia events

jan 1947
-combination and economic unification of UK and US zones and new currency - Deutschmark - to boost econ
- angered Stalin - feared new ideas and currency would spread to USSR zone and undermine his efforts to weaken Germany - introduced Ostmark in East Germany


significance of Bizonia

- clear division between US and USSR even within Germany
- led to Berlin Blockade when people wanted to move to West Germany - humiliating for Stalin