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Flashcards in Russia - power Deck (46)
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1

main reasons why Russia turned Communist in 1917

- failure of WW1
- failure of provisional government
- bad leadership of tsar
- large divide between rich and poor
- bolsheviks - Lenin's April Theses
- long term dissatisfaction
- check and gulags
- red army - led by Trotsky - success of civil war

2

why were the bolsheviks successful in winning gaining power of Russia and civil war

- Lenin's leadership skills
- Trotsky's planning and red guard
- support from soldiers
- propaganda and censorship
- war communism

3

summary of bolshevik takeover

- power 'fell' into bolshevik hands
- provisional govt had no military support or authority
- Trotsky in Petrograd Soviet swiftly seized key points
- excessive fighting in Moscow - limited in Petrograd
- new govt of 14 commissars - all bolshevik
- Lenin forcibly shuts down January constitute after gaining 175 votes of 717

4

6 steps towards communism

- feudalism - middle class wealthier and labours work in towns
- bourgeois revolution - middle class take power from monarch and aristocracy
- capitalism - proletariat grain class consciousness - being oppressed
- socialist revolution - proletariat move to revolutionary consciousness - seize power from bourgeois
- socialism - proletariat find counter revolutionaries
- communism - get rid of govt

5

October revolution

1917 - bolsheviks seized power in well planned, well executed uprising
- only 300,000 bolshevik members at time - portrays the revolution as mass uprising by workers
- stormed winter palace in Petrograd

6

January 1918 elections

- bolsheviks gained 9 million votes and 175 seats
- socialist revolutionaries gained 21 million and 410 seats
- lenin shut down the constituent assembly replacing it with the all-russian congress of soviets

7

Lenin's removal of other parties

march 1918 - bolshevik party renamed communist party
by 1921 - 'the place for Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries is in prison' - 5,000 Mensheviks arrested in first 3 months of '21

8

treaty of Brest-litovsk

1918 - took Russia out of WW1
- lost control of Baltics, Finland, Ukraine
- national humiliation for conservatives - restore Russia's pride by overthrowing bolshevik regime
- conservatives supported by the whites - allies from Britain, France, US, Japan

9

The civil war

1918-21 - reds led by Trotsky - militarily, economically, politically organised - fighting for same cause
- reds were conscripted - 5 million
- whites various groups connected only to destroy bolsheviks - poor communication, limited by inefficiency and corruption

10

civil war results

- power centralised due to demands and strict control over military techniques
- war communism - 150,000 'volunteers' requisitioned grain
- power firmly in hands of sovnarkom and politburo

11

tenth party congress

march 1921 - civil war won
- party membership increased to 730,000
- lenin banned factions in party - 'on party unity' - imposing Lenin's views and values on party
- go up against rule - expulsion

12

Tambov rising

1920 - peasants revolted against bolshevik regime - badly treated in forced requisitioning of grain
- green army
- 50,000 bolshevik troops sent in to put down revolt

13

Kronstadt mutiny

1921 - sailors in Kronstadt wished to oppose bolshevik order
- 100,000 killed during reclaim of naval base
- 2,500 killed without trial

14

democratic centralism

- bolsheviks claimed their govt based on this principle
- 'soviets' used to represent workers at local levels
- feed wished to higher people who acted on behalf of people
- not the case Lenin centralised power

15

Lenin's centralisation of power

- both chair of sovnarkom and one of 9 politburo members
- dismissed ideas of personal dictatorship
- knew had authority - threatened to resign if there were heated debates over difficult issues

16

nomenklatura system

- made people stay loyal to party
- loyalty rewarded in party by promotion
- 1924 - 1 million party members

17

Lenin's use of terror

1917 - cheka - dealt with counter revolutionaries - soon operated above law
1917-23 - red terror - 250,000 deaths - secret police grew from 40,000 in 1918 to 250,000 in 1921
1922 - cheka replaced by OGPU - focused on inside the party - christka (cleansing) 33% of party purged

18

limits to centralisation under lenin

for example:
- kamenev and zinoviev opposed launch of revolution in 1917
- fierce debate over acceptance of treaty of Brest-litovsk
- right wing and left wing factions in party - despite ban

19

Stalin's role as general secretary

1922 - keep eye on opposition
- helped him in power struggle post Lenin
- gained access to 26,000 personal files
- lenin enrolment - 1923-25 500,000 new party members - more support for him
- had right to change staff - changed into his supporters - blackmail for votes in his favour
- was a 'grey blur' in meetings - took notes on everyone

20

stalin outmanoeuvring politcal opponents

- left of party - zinoviev, kamenev, Trotsky called for 'permanent revolution' - world wide revolution
- right of party - bukharin, tom sky, rykov wanted to stick with Lenin's NEP
- stalin used difference to manipulate them
- left wing expelled from party in 1926 - accused of forming factions
- right - stalin brought out bukharin's disputes with Lenin in early '20s - accusing him of factionalism - 1929 removed with tomsky - rykov remained head of govt until 1930

21

Stalin's use of secret police

- renamed OGPU the NKVD
- root out further opponents - response to party difficulties in launch of Five Year Plans and collectivisation
- anyone who opposed was removed
- by 1935 22% of party removed from posts - non violent process

22

show trails

1935-36 - mass denunciation and arrest of party members in 'left opposition' accused of anti-Soviet activities

23

trail of the sixteen

1936 - leaders of the left - Zinoviev, Karmenev arrested accused of working with Trotsky and murder of Kriov

24

trial of seventeen

1937 - purge of party officials again accused of working with Trotsky

25

trail of the twenty-one

1938 - purge of the right - tom sky committed suicide before trial - Rykov and Bukharin accused of forming 'trotskyite-rightist bloc'

26

purges in red army

1937-38 - massive purge of military
- 3/5 marshalls purged
- 35,000 officers shot or imprisoned
- navy lost 100% of admirals
- to cut down power of army and ensure loyalty to stalin

27

how did stalin gain further control over party and state

- only surviving member of 1924 politburo - met less frequently - weekly in '20s to 9 times a year by mid 30s
- power focused on subgroups outside politburo - stalin could exercise firmer control
- intimidated people in important meetings - fear of saying something disagreeable to stalin resulted in execution

28

limits on Stalin's power

- could not control and decide every issue - required to prioritise issues
- in '32 wanted to execute ryutin for denouncing him - politburo refused to agree - sentenced 10 years in labour camp
- forced to accept redrafted second five year plan targets to avoid humiliation
- although there were limits - significantly more control over govt than Lenin - impossible to see stalinism as result of Leninism - operated differently - secret police, personal dictatorship, fundamental ideology (socialism in one country vs permeant revolution)

29

Stalin's power over party during WW2

- use of terror reduced during war
- generals like Zhukov were release from labour camps
- use of propaganda the appealed to Russian nationalism to mobilise masses into war effort
- stalin suffered a breakdown - did emerge a soviet hero - saving USSR from nazis

30

high stalinism

1945-53 - party moved quickly to reassert authority after slight relaxation of control during war
- politburo became much younger after WW2 - Beria, malenkov now eclipsing people like molotov