Flashcards in Colon Cancer Deck (26):
Incidence of CRC
2nd leading cause of deaths
3rd most common cancer in men and women
African American and Ashkanazi Jews
Risk factors for CRC
Diet high in fat, processed, fried foods and red meats
Family hx (1st degree relatives)
FAP and Lynch syndrome
What is the number 1 risk factor for CRC
Characteristics of FAP
Mutation of APC gene
TONS of polyps
Usually occurs in teens and early 20's
Characteristics of Lynch syndrome
Many polyps but not as many as FAP
Mutation in MLH1 or MLH2
Proximal location of colon
Screening recommendations for CRC
Beginning at age 50
OR 10 years earlier than age of family member diagnosed
OR 45 if African American
OR 7yrs after diagnosis of UC
Why do screening for CRC?
Most CRC develop from polyps
Reduction in cancer risk by 90%
Clinical presentation of CRC
-change in bowel habits
-unexplained weight loss
Gold standard screening modality for CRC
Most CRC are at what stage when diagnosed?
39% are Localized (stage 1-2)
Treatment options for CRC
Advantages of a Laprascopic colon resection
*Faster return of bowel function
Treatment for rectal cancer
Surgery (LAR vs APR)
Neoadjuvant XRT and chemo
Possible ileostomy or colostomy
Difference between 2 types of Rectal Cancer surgery
-temporary diverting ileostomy
-no sphincter involvement
Differences between Ileostomy and Colostomy
Ileostomy (small bowel).
-high liquid output (diarrhea)
-usually located in RLQ.
-no control of BM
-lower solid output
-can control BM
What is a surgical complication of an ileostomy?
Signs and symptoms of Anastomosis
What are some possible Parastomal complications?
Treatment options for liver mets
Common sites of Mets in CRC
Cytotoxic chemo used for CRC
What is VEGF Inhibitor?
Used to stop VGEF from forming new blood vessels
-s/e: bleeding, clots, hypertension
What is a EGFR Inhibitor?
*Used in people who DO NOT have KRAS mutation
-Erbitux & Vectibix
*high incidence of infusion reaction
What is a Kinase Inhibitor?
Blocks several kinase proteins to stop cancer growth
Surveillance after treatment
CEA q3 months x2yrs
Colonoscopy one year after surgery
Annual CT C/A/P x3yrs