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Term 1: COM 110 at Carrington > COM Study Guide Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in COM Study Guide Final Exam Deck (58):


Chapter 10, Page 270

Response to a reproach.

IE: Apologies, Excuses, Justifications, Denials, and/or absence of account (silence).


Affect Displays

Chapter 7, Page 185-186

Nonverbal behaviors that communicate emotions.

EX: When you are happy, your face will convey it. You will also have intense hand movements, openness of posture, speed of which you move - all gestures that show others you are happy.


Affinity-Seeking Strategies

Chapter 11, Page 320

Strategies we use to increase others' liking us.

IE: Control, Visibility, Mutual Trust, Politeness, Concern and Caring, Other-Involvement, Self-Involvement, and/or Commonalities.


Approachability Cues

Chapter 11, Page 318

Physical cues that demonstrate one is available or unavailable to be approached.

EX: Establish eye contact, turning towards a person, smiling, being animated, saying hello, using open body language, winking, and waving shows you WANT to talk to someone.

*Found in text.


Arousal Cues

Chapter 7, Page 198

"A person's face, voice, and movement are primary indicators of arousal. If we sense arousal cues, we conclude that another person is responsive to and interested in us."

EX: People who show arousal signals by a change in facial expression, vocal cues, animation in their face, gestures, leaning forward, flashing their eyebrows, and nodding their heads.

*Found in text.


"Be Tolerant and Be Tactful"

Chapter 11, Page 325

"The most satisfying relationships are those in which partners learn to accept each other and refrain from continually disagreeing, criticizing, pointing out flaws or failures, and making negative comments to each other."

*Found in text


Blended Family

Chapter 12, Page 331

Two adults and their children. Because of divorce, separation, death, or adoption, the children are the offspring of other biological parents or of just one of the adults raising them.


Circumflex Model

Chapter 12, Pages 333-334

Model of the relationships among family adaptability, cohesion, and communication.


What are the three different types of Conflict?

Chapter 8, Page 216-218

Pseudoconflict, Simple Conflict, and Ego Conflict.


Conflict Myths

Chapter 8, Page 216-217

*Hint: There are four myths.

1) Is always a sign of an interpersonal relationship.

2) Conflict can always be avoided.

3) Conflict always occurs because of misunderstandings.

4) Conflict can always be resolved.


Conflict Trigger

Chapter 8, Page 211

A common perceived cause of interpersonal conflict.

IE: Criticism, Feeling Entitled, Lack of Fairness, More Perceived Cost than Rewards, Different Perspectives, Stress and Lack of Rest, Dialectical Tension.


Complementary Needs

Chapter 9, Page 250

Needs that match; each partner contributes something to the relationship that the other partner needs.

EX: Joe is funny and a doesn't plan stuff on the weekends.
Pat likes to laugh and enjoys planning stuff on the weekends.


Cumulative Rewards and Costs

Chapter 9, Page 256

Represents the total rewards and cost accrued over the duration of the relationship.

EX: Relationships represents investments. And the more we have invested, the more we are likely to hold on to that investment.

*Found in text.


Expected Rewards and Costs

Chapter 9, Page 256

Expectation of how much reward we should get from a given relationship in comparison to its costs.

EX: We have a mental model for our ideal friends ... which we measure the costs and rewards associated with the actual relationship.


* Expressive Function - In regards to Eye Contact

Chapter 7, Page 187

"... the area around your eyes provides important information about the emotions you display. You may cry, blink, and widen or narrow your gaze to express your feelings, which is why the eyes have been called the 'window to the soul.'"

*Found in text.


Friends with Benefits (FWB)

Chapter 11, Page 304

People in relationships labeled FWBs have both sexual and nonsexual interactions but value their friendship above all.


Friendship-based Intimacy

Chapter 11, Page 302

"One claim is that women define their female friendships by intimacy, while men define their friendships in terms of activities."

*Found in text


Frustration Awareness

Chapter 9, Page 214

The beginning stage of conflict - "you become aware that the differences in the relationship are increasingly problematic. You may begin to self-talk, noting that something is wrong and creating frustration."

*Found in text.



Chapter 8, Page 231

Dredging up old problems and issues from the past to use against your partner.


Hostile Environment

Chapter 12, Pages 356-357

Type of harassment (often with a sexual component) in which an employee's rights are threatened through offensive working conditions or behavior on part of other workers.



Chapter 12, Page 185

Nonverbal behaviors that accompany a verbal message and either contradict, accent, or complement it.

EX: Slamming a book closed while announcing, "I don't want to read anymore."


Initiation Norm

Chapter 11, Page 319

"...initial interactions in a relationship are almost ritualistic, or at least scripted."

EX: When two strangers meet, they will typically follow the same general patter of conversation: greetings; introductions; and discuss initial topics like the weather, educational background, occupations, etc.

*Found in text.



Chapter 8, Page 211

Dependent on each other; one person's actions affect the other person.


Interpersonal Conflict

Chapter 8, Page 210

An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent people who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, or interference in the achievement of their goals.



Chapter 9, Page 252

Highest level of the Escalation Stages in Relational Development.

"... a friend or romantic partner with whom you could talk anything and everything and share intimate disclosures. In this stage, partners confirm and accept each other's sense of self,and their communication is highly personalized and synchronized."

EX: Best friend / Lover / Spouse


Intimate Space

Chapter 7, Page 192

Zone of space most often used for group interactions, ranging from 1 1/2 to 4 feet between individuals.


Invulnerable Responses

Chapter 10, Page 280

Ignoring, laughing, or being silent in response to a hurtful message.


Managing your Emotions

Chapter 8, Page 229

Be aware that you are becoming angry and emotionally volatile;

Seek to understand why you are angry and emotional;

Make a conscious decision about whether to express your anger;

Select a mutually acceptable time and place to discuss a conflict;

Plan your message;


Avoid personal attacks, name calling, and emotional overstatement;

Take time to establish rapport;

Use self-talk

*Found in text.


Deception by Omission (Concealment)

Chapter 10, Page 278

Intentionally holding back some of the information another person has requested or that you are expected to share.

EX: Your parent's ask you where you were last night and you replied that you went to the movies. What you didn't add was that you also went to a friend's party afterwards.


Pelz Effect

Chapter 12, Page 352

Subordinates feel more satisfied in their jobs the more their supervisors are able to influence higher-level decisions.

EX: Having a supportive and influential superior enhances communication because employees are more open to sharing information.


Preinteraction Awareness

Chapter 9, Page 251

Lowest level of the Escalation Stages in Relational Development.

"At this stage, you gain information about others by observing them or talking with others about them without having any direct interactions a passive strategy by which you form initial impressions."

EX: Stranger



Chapter 7, Page 192

Study of how close or far away from people and objects people position themselves.


Public Space

Chapter 7, Page 192

Zone of space most often used by public speakers or anyone speaking to many people, ranging beyond 12 feet from the individual.


Quid Pro Quo Harassment

Chapter 12, Page 356

Implied or explicit promise of reward in exchange for sexual favors or threat of retaliation if sexual favors are withheld, given to an employee by a coworker or a superior.

The latin phrase "quid pro quo" roughly means "you do something for me and I'll do something for you."



Chapter 9, Page 258

"... you and your partner might reach an understanding that you will become closer, yet still appreciate that you are separate individuals and have your own lives outside the relationship."

*Part of Coping with Dialectical Tension (Praxis)

*Found in text.


Relationship of Circumstance

Chapter 9, Page 244-245

Interpersonal relationship that exists because of life circumstances (who your family members are, where you work or where you study, and so on).

EX: Your mother, your classmate Jeff, your boss, etc.



Chapter 10, Page 270

Message that a failure event has occurred.

EX: You are upset that a close friend forgot your birthday, you might act cold or distant to them.


Self-Image Protection

Chapter 10, Page 279

"To protect one's self-image/save face - You might use deception when something threatens your positive face (how you want others to see you).

EX: You were late for an appointment, but you want to be viewed as punctual, you may exaggerate about how bad the traffic was.



Chapter 8, Pages 231-232

Involved with Managing your Emotions.

"When Eleanor Roosevelt noted, 'No one can make you feel inferior without your consent,' she was acknowledging the power of self-talk to affect your emotional response to what others say and do."


Simple Conflict

Chapter 8, Page 217

Conflict that steams from different ideas, definitions, perceptions, or goals.

EX: For a vacation, your spouse wants to fly to Disney World; you'd rather take a train to Washington DC. You understand each other, just disagree.


Single Parent Family

Chapter 12, Pages 331-332

One parent raising one or more children.



Chapter 10, Pages 282-283

Repeated, unwelcome intrusions that create concern for personal safety and fear in a target.



Chapter 10, Page 286

"Stonewalling: withdrawing, not responding to each other, and minimally engaging in the relationship.

Involved with Signs of Relationship Problems.



Chapter 7, Page 197

Nonverbal cues, such as facial expressions, body postures, or eye behaviors, that give away what we are thinking and feeling.

EX: In the game of poker, smirking means a player has a good set of cards, frowning means we do not have a winning hand, etc.



Chapter 7, Page 193

Study of how animals and humans use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space.

EX: You sit a booth in a pizza parlor. A strange would not sit with you because at that moment, you have "ownership" of the booth where you will eat your pizza.


Traditional Marriage

Chapter 12, Page 340

Married partners who are interdependent and who exhibit a lot of sharing and companionship.


Triangular Theory of Love

Chapter 11, Page 309

Theory suggests that all loving relationships can be described according to three dimensions: intimacy, commitment; and passion.


Perceived Partner Uniqueness

Chapter 10, Page 269

"... we might see flirting as a minor failure event while our partner views it as severe. ... regardless of how severe we feel the transgression is, we still might not end the relationship if we believe our partner is the only person who can really meet our relational needs - a phenomenon known as perceived partner uniqueness."

*Found in text.


Young Adult Friendship

Chapter 11, Page 301

"Young adult friendships, those occurring in our late teens through our early thirties, are linked to a succession of significant changes in our lifestyles and goals, such as going to college, getting a job, pursuing serious romantic relationships, getting married, buying a house, and starting a family."

*Found in text.


Understand the difference between Relationships of Circumstance and Relationships of Choice.

Chapter 9, Page 244

Interpersonal relationship that exists because of life circumstances (who your family members are, where you work or where you study, and so on).
EX: Your mother, your classmate Jeff, your boss, etc.

Relationships of Choice: Interpersonal relationship you choose to initiate, maintain, and, perhaps, terminate.
EX: Your husband, your ex-girlfriend, your best friend, etc.


Understand the four elements of an interpersonal conflict.

Chapter 8, Page 210-211

(Think of "an argument with ABIE")

A: Achieving a goal.
B: Between at least two interdependent people.
I: Incompatible goals, scare resources, and interference.
E: Expressed struggle.


Relational Dialectics Theory

Chapter 9, Page 257

(Jeff's Bonus Question)

Theory that views relational development as the management of tensions that are pulling is in two directions at the same time.
Connection - Autonomy;
Predictability - Novelty;
Openness - Closedness.


Relationship of Choice

Chapter 9, Page 244

(Jeff's Bonus Question)

Interpersonal relationship you choose to initiate, maintain, and, perhaps, terminate.

EX: Your husband, your ex-girlfriend, your best friend, etc.



Chapter 8, Page 217

(Jeff's Bonus Question)

Conflict triggered by a lack of understanding and miscommunication.


Ego Conflict

Chapter 8, Page 218

(Jeff's Bonus Question)

Conflict in which the original issue is ignored as partners attack each other's self-esteem.


Active Verbal Responses

Chapter 10, Page 280

(Jeff's Bonus Question)

Reactive statements made in response to a hurtful message.

IE: Counterattacks, Self-Defense Statements, Sarcasm, and/or demands for explanations.


Acquiescent Responses

Chapter 10, Page 280

(Jeff's Bonus Question)

Crying, condescending, or apologizing in response to a hurtful message.


Deception by Commission (Lying)

Chapter 10, Page 278

Deliberate presentation of false information.