Common Brain lesions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Common Brain lesions Deck (18):
1

Frontal Lobe

Disinhibtion and deficits in concentration, orientation, and judgement

May have remergence of primitive reflexes

Loss of working memory, planning, motivation, curiosity and personality

Disorganized: insight, abstract reasoning, working memory and planning
disinhibited: judgement, concentration, inhibition of inappropriate behavior, foresight and delayed gratification apathetic: motivation, spontaneity, curiosity, mental flexibility, and personality

2

R. parietal temporal cortex

Spatial neglect syndrome (loss of sensory of the contralateral side of the world)

3

Left Parietal temporal cortex

Agraphia-can't communicate through writing, cant do simple math, finger loss of sensory, and left to right disorientation

4

Reticular activating system

Reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (left-right disorientation)

5

Mamillary bodies

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Confusion, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, memory loss (permanent)-anterograde and retrograde, confabulation (permanent), personality changes

associated with thiamine defiency and excessive ethanol use
Can be precipitated by giving glucose

Part of papez circuit involved in emotion and memory

Treat with IV thiamine
Can also have damage to anterior and dosomedial thalamic nuclei

6

Basal ganglia

Tremor at rest, chorea, or athetosis

7

Cerebellar hemisphere

Intention tremor, limb ataxia, and loss of balance

Damage to cerebellum results in ipsilateral deficits-fall toward side of lesion

Lateral lesions affect lateral limbs

8

Cerebellar vermis

Truncal ataxia, dysarthia

Central affects central part of body

9

Subthalamic nucleus

Contralateral hemiballismus

10

Hippocampus

Anterograde amnesia-inability to make new memories

11

Paramedian pontine reticular formation

Eyes look away from side of lesion

12

Frontal eye fields

Eyes look toward side of lesion

13

Clasp knife spasticity

Initial resistance to passive extension followed by sudden release of resistance

Lack of UMN inhibition-increased tone, hyperreflexia, and positive Babinski sign

Can affect any part of pyramidal motor system-corticospinal tracts, medulla, pons and midbrain, internal capsule and precentral gyrus

14

Globus Pallidus

external segment-decreased motion/movement
Internal segment-increased motion/movement

15

Putamen

Contralateral tremor, bradykinesia, and regidity

Wilson's disease

16

Corpus Collossum

Split brain syndrome

Lack interhemispheric transfer of info
Can't retrieve an object with one hand that is palpated by the other

17

Temporal lobes

Language problems, difficulty with sensory interpretation and impaired memory

Behavioral changes (hpersexuality hyperorality)

18

Amygdala

Kluver Bucy Syndrome

Hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior

Associated with HSV-1