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Flashcards in Common TCP/IP Protocols Deck (32):


A set of standards for communication between network hosts


Protocol suite

A group of protocols intended to be used together


Name Web services protocols

* Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)


Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

* Is used by web browsers and web servers o exchange files (such as web pages) through the World Wide Web and intranets.
* Can be described as an information requesting and responding protocol.
* Is typically used to request and send web documents, but is also used as the protocol for communication between agents using different TCP/IP protocols



Is a secure form of HTTP that uses SSL to encrypt data before it is transmitted


Name Security protocols

* Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
* Transport Layer Security (TLS)


Secure Layer Security (SSL)

* Secures messages being transmitted on the Internet
* Uses RSA for authentication and encryption
* Web browsers use SSL to ensure safe web transactions


Transport Layer Security (TLS)

* Ensure the messages being transmitted on the Internet are private and tamper proof.
* TLS is implemented in two protocols
* TLS Record provides connection security with encryption (with DES for example)
* TLS Handshake provides mutual authentication and choice of encryption method


Name the file transfer protocols

* File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
* Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
* Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)
* Secure Copy (SCP)


File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

* Generic method of transferring files
* Protect access to files by requiring usernames and passwords, and allows file transfer between dissimilar computer systems
* Can transfer both binary and text files including HTML to another host
**** FTP does not use encryption. All data are sent over the network in clear text ****


Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

* Does not provide user authentication or error detection
* Used when files need to be transferred between systems quickly
* Since it does not perform error detection TFTP is faster than FTP but is susceptible to transmission errors


Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)

* Uses SSH to secure data transfer
* SSH ensures that SFTP transmission use encrypted commands and data


Secure Copy (SCP)

* Used to securely transfer files between systems


Name Email Protocols

* Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
* Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)
* Internet Message Access Protocol version4 (IMAP4)


Simple Mail Transfer (SMTP)

* Is used to route electronic mail through the internetwork
* Is used between mail severs for sending and relaying mail
* Is used by all email clients to send mail
* by some email client programs, such as Outlook for receiving mail from an Exchange server


Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)

* Is used to retrieve email from a remote server and download it to a local client over TCP/IP connection
**** An email client that uses POP3 for receiving mail uses SMTP for sending mail ****


Internet Message Access Protocol version4 (IMAP4)

* Designed to enable users to access their mail for various locations, with out the need to transfer messages or files back and forth between computers
* Messages remain on the remote mail server and are not automatically downloaded to a client system
**** An email client that uses IMAP4 for receiving mail uses SMTP for sending mail ****


Network Services Protocols

* Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
* Domain Name System (DNS)
* Network Time Protocol (NTP)
* Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

* Is used to automatically assign addresses and other configuration parameters to network hosts
* Using a DHCP server, hosts receive configuration information at startup, reducing the amount of manual configuration required on each host


Domain Name System (DNS)

* A distributed system throughout the internetwork that provides addresses and name resolution
* EX would be mapped to a specific IP address


Network Time Protocol (NTP)

* Used to communicate time synchronization information between systems on a network


Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)

* Used to search, retrieve data from, and update a directory service
* This protocol follows a client/server model.
* One or more LDAP servers contain the directory data
* The client connects to an LDAP Server to make a directory service request


Network Management Protocols

* Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
* Remote Terminal Emulation (Telnet)
* Secure Shell (SSL)


Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

* Designed for managing complex networks
* Lets network hosts exchange configuration and status information.
* This information can be gathered by management software and is used to monitor and manage the network


Remote Terminal Emulation (Telnet)

* Allows a computer to remotely access the console of a computer system somewhere else in the network
* Was used for remote management task but rarely used today
* Does not use encryption - recommended to use a secure alternative to Telnet for remote management task, such as SSH


Secure Shell (SSH)

* Allows for secure interactive control of remote systems
* Uses RSA public key cryptography for both connection and authentication
* Uses the IDEA algorithm for encryption by default, but is can use Blowfish and DES
* Is a secure and preferred alternative to Telnet


Transport Protocols

* Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
* User Datagram Protocol (UDP)


Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

* Provides services that ensure accurate and timely delivery of network communication between two hosts
* Sequencing of data packets
* Flow control
* Error checking
* Acknowledgement of packets sent
* Retransmission of lost packets


User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

* Host to host protocol like TCP but
* Doesn't acknowledge each packet transmitted
* Doesn't allow for retransmission of lost packets
* That reduces overhead allowing for faster communications
* Ideal of streaming audio and video
* Speed come at the expense of possible errors or data loss


Control Protocols

* Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
* Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP)


Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

* Works closely with IP to prevent errors and control information by allowing host to exchange packet status information
* Ping and traceroute use ICMP message to check network connectivity
* ICMP also works with IP to send notices
* When destinations are unreachable
* Which route and hops a packets takes through a network
* Whether devices can communicate across the network


Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP)

* Defines host groups
* All group members can receive broadcast messages (multicasts) intended for the group
* Multicast groups can be composed of devices within the same network or across networks (connected with a router)