Common Viral Pathogens I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Common Viral Pathogens I Deck (37):
1

Herpes Simplex Type I (HSV1)
Type

dsDNA

2

Herpes Simplex Type II (HSV2)
Type

dsDNA

3

Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
Type

dsDNA

4

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Type

dsDNA

5

HSV1
Cells targeted for primary infection and latency

Primary- mucosal epithelium
Latency- Neuron

6

HSV2
Cells targeted

Primary- mucosal epithelium
Latency- Neuron

7

VZV
Cells Targeted

Primary- mucosal epithelium
Latency- Neuron

8

CMV
Cells targetted

Primary- Epithelia, monocytes and lymphocytes
Latency- Monocytes and lymphocytes

9

HSV1
Transmission and incubation period

Close contact, 2-12 days

10

HSV2
Transmission and incubation

Close contact usually sexually, 2-12 days

11

CMV
Transmission and incubation

Contact, blood transfusion, transplantation, congenital, 2 weeks to 2 months

12

VZV
Transmission and incubation

Contact or respiratory (droplet), 10-21 days

13

HSV1
Disease entity and clinical presentation

Orofacial (And some) genital lesions
Encephalitis
Herpes whitlow and keratitis
Neonatal herpes

14

HSV2
Disease Entitity and clinical presentation

Same as HSV1, but predominately genital lesions with some orofacial lesions

15

CMV
Disease Entity and clinical presentation

Infectious mononucleosis-like,
In immunocompromised- retinitis, penumonia, colitis
Congential CMV in newborns

16

VZV
Disease entity and clinical presentation

Chickenpox for varicella and shingles for zoster

Shingles is super painful and confined to infected dermatomes

17

HSV1
DIagnosis

Clinically, viral culture, direct fluorescent Ab staining og lesions, PCR of lesions

18

HSV2
Diagnosis

Clinically, viral culture, direct fluorescent Ab staining og lesions, PCR of lesions

19

VZV
Diagnosis

Both clinically

but also
Fluorescent antibody, PCR and Culutre

20

CMV
Diagnosis

Culture, PCR, antibody stain, serology, histology

21

HSV1
Treatment

Nucleoside analog (acyclovir)

22

HSV2
Treatment

Nucleoside analog (acyclovir)

23

VZV
Treatment

Acyclovir to shorten course of chickenpox

24

CMV
Treatment

No indicated treatment, but ganciclovir for immunocompormised patients

25

HSV1
Prophylaxis including vaccines

Oral antiviral suppressive therapy

26

HSV2
Prophylaxis including vaccines

Oral antiviral suppressive therapy

27

VZV
Prophylaxis including vaccines

Live attenuated VZV vaccine for chicken pox
Shingles vaccine for 50 years and older

28

CMV
Prophylaxis including vaccines

No vaccine, but CMV-IG can be given to immunocompromised patients for high risk patients

29

Describe the virion structure and replication cycle of herpesvirus

Icosahedral capsid, surroudnmed by a glycoprotein rich envelope

Entry- envelope fusion mediated by targeted receptors
Replication- Immediate-early (IE) genes encode for transcription activators, E proteins code for proteins involved in DNA replication, L genes are viral structures
Assembly- In the nucleus, self assembly, budding through the nucleus and getting their glycoprotein from the golgi
Exit/Egress- lysis or exocytosis

30

Complicaytions of chickenpox

Secondary infection/cellulitis, pneumonia, necrotizing faciitis, encephalitis, hepatitis and congenital VZV

31

Who we do and do not give the varicella and shingles vaccine to

Contraindicated in immunocompromised patients

32

What is the importance of T cell mediated immunity to the VZV infection

Its what essentially prevents shingles in people, as is why we see singles happen often in older people

33

Explain the consequences of maternal herpesvirus infection during pregnancy including the risk of the infant developing neonatal HSV, or congenital VZV and CMV syndromes

Neonatal HSV- mostly caused by HSV2, high morbidity and mortality. 3 forms, SEM, CNS, or disseminated
Congenital VZV- first 8-20 weeks of pregnancy, with fetus exhibiting multiple tissue/organ abnormalities
Congenital CMV- more often in primary infection, 3-5% chance baby will be born with CMV (leads to complications such as low BW, microcephaly, hearing loss, mental impairment)

34

Know and be able to recognize how CMV can be diagnosed histologically in infected tissues

Owl's eye appearance , a dense dark nuclear body surrounded by a halo, representing intranuclear unclusions

35

How do you interpret serology (IgM and IgG tests) in the diagnosis of CMV

+igm - igg, acute CMV
-igm -igg, no infection
-igm +igg, previous infection in life
+igm +igg, reactivation of CMV recently

36

Herpes Whitlow

Infection of the fingers through oral or GU contact, can lead to painful pustules

37

Herpes Keratitis

HSV infects cornea of the eye, from primary infection or reactivation, leading to dendritic scarring that can result in blinding